اثر یک دوره تمرین ورزشی ترکیبی بر برخی عوامل آمادگی جسمانی دختران کم‌توانی ذهنی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار فیزیولوژی ورزش، دانشگاه حکیم سبزواری، سبزوار، ایران.

2 کارشناس ارشد فیزیولوژی ورزش، دانشگاه حکیم سبزواری، سبزوار، ایران.

3 دانشجوی دکتری فیزیولوژی ورزش، دانشگاه حکیم سبزواری، سبزوار، ایران.

چکیده

زمینه و هدف: افراد مبتلا به کم ­توانی ذهنی معمولا از آمادگی جسمانی پایین و ترکیب بدنی نامناسب برخوردارند. هدف از مطالعه حاضر بررسی اثر یک دوره تمرین ورزشی بر ترکیب بدنی و آمادگی جسمانی دختران کم‌توان ذهنی بود. روش تحقیق: تعداد 22 دختر حرفه­ آموز یک مرکز توانبخشی خصوصی (دامنه سنی: 30-22 سال، ضریب هوشی: 70-50) به صورت تصادفی به دو گروه کنترل و تجربی تقسیم شدند. برنامه تمرینی شامل دو بخش مقاومتی و هوازی، به مدت 8 هفته، 3 جلسه در هفته و هر جلسه به مدت 90 دقیقه اجرا شد. بخش مقاومتی شامل تمرینات با کش لاستیکی و تمرینات تحمل وزن بدن (به رعایت اصل اضافه بار) و تمرینات هوازی شامل راه رفتن، دویدن، بازی آزاد و حرکات ریتمیک بود. قبل و بعد از برنامه تمرینی، آزمون­ های ترکیب بدن، قدرت عمومی و توان هوازی به عمل آمد. داده­ ها با استفاده از آزمون های t وابسته و مستقل با کمک نرم افزار SPSS نسخه 18 تجزیه و تحلیل گردید و سطح معنی داری آزمون‌ها 0/05>p در نظر گرفته شد. یافته­­ ها: نتایج نشان داد که بین دو گروه کنترل و تجربی تفاوت معنی داری در وزن (0/63=p)، شاخص توده بدنی (0/19=p)، توده بدون چربی (0/81=p)، توده چربی (0/37=p) و حداکثر اکسیژن مصرفی اندازه گیری شده با آزمون شاتل ران (0/26=p) وجود ندارد؛ اما تمرین ورزشی به اجرا درآمده باعث افزایش معنی­دار قدرت عمومی (0/001=p) شرکت کنندگان گردید. نتیجه ­گیری: تمرین ترکیبی مشتمل بر تمرینات مقاومتی هوازی، می­ تواند قدرت عضلانی دختران کم ­توان ذهنی را بهبود بخشد، اما برای بهبودی ترکیب بدنی و توان هوازی آن ها کفایت نمی کند. از این رو پیشنهاد می ­شود تمرینات ورزشی به عنوان بخشی از برنامه روزانه مراکز توانبخشی با تاکید بر مدت مناسب و شدت مطلوب، طراحی و اجرا شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of combined exercise training program on some physical fitness factors in mentally retarded girls

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sayd Alireza Hosseini-Kakhk 1
  • Shahnaz Nasrabadi 2
  • Amir-Hosseine Haghighi 1
  • Akram Sharifi-Moghadam 3
1 Associate Professor of Exercise Physiology, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, Iran.
2 Msc of Exercise Physiology, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, Iran.
3 PhD Student of Exercise Physiology, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Background and Aim: Mentally retarded individuals have poor physical fitness and inappropriate body composition. The purpose of this study was toinvestigate of effect of combined exercise training program on body composition and physical fitness in mentally retarded girls.Material and Methods: twenty twosubjects from a private rehabilitation center (age: 22-30 years, intelligence quotients= 50-70) were selected and randomly divided into two groups of experimental and control. The training protocol included strength and aerobic training, eight weeks, three sessions per week, and each session 90 minutes. Part of resistance training included training with elastic bands and weight bearing resistance exercise (with respect of overload) and aerobic training included walking, jogging and rhythmic activities. Before and after training protocol body composition, general strength and aerobic power were measured. Data were analyzed using dependent and independent sample t-tests on gain scores, employing the SPSS statistical package program. The test significance level was taken as p<0.05.Results:                               There were no statistically significant differences in weight (t=0.48, p=0.63), BMI (t=1.35, p=0.19), lean body mass (t= -0.23, p=0.81), fat body mass (t=0.91, p=0.37), and VO2max in Mc Ardle step test (t=1.7, p=0.1) and shuttle run test (t=-1.14, p=0.26) between groups, whereas muscular strength significantly increased (t=-4.56, p=0.001) in training group. Conclusion: Combined resistance and aerobic training can improve muscular strength in mentally retarded girls, whereas probably have no significantly effect on body composition and aerobic power. It suggested that exercise training program consider as a part of daily activities and curriculum in rehabilitation centers, and these training designed with longer duration and more intensity and consideration dietary regimen.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Mentally retarded
  • Combined exercise training
  • physical fitness
  • Body composition
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