عنوان مقاله [English]
Background and Aim: Ischemia induces physiological alterations in neurons that lead to cell death. Evidence
suggests that physical exercise have a neuroprotective effect and can protect the brain from ischemic injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 4 weeks of endurance training on tumor necrosis factor alpha, Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-1 beta levels after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in male rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty one male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups including control, exercise-ischemia and ischemia groups. Physical exercise group were trained 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Ischemia induced by occlusion both common carotid arteries for 20 minutes. The cytokines level was measured by the ELISA method. The data were analyzed by the one way-ANOVA and Scheffe’s post hoc tests and the significance level was considered if pResults: Endurance exercise led to significant decreases in the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (p=0.04), Interleukin-6 (p=0.003) and Interleukin-1 beta (p=0.004). Conclusion: Endurance exercise can protect hippocampus against ischemia-induced injuries by attenuation of ischemic- produced inflammation.
Albasser, M. M., Amin, E., Lin, T-C. E., Iordanova, M. D., & Aggleton, J. P. (2012). Evidence that the rat hippocampus has contrasting roles in object recognition memory and object recency memory. Behavioral Neuroscience, 126(5), 659-669.
Berti, R., Williams, A. J., Moffett, J. R., Hale, S. L., Velarde, L. C., Elliott, P. J., Yao, C., Dave, J. R., & Tortella, F. C. (2002). Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of inflammatory gene expression associated with ischemia-reperfusion brain injury. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, 22(9), 1068-1079.
Dimyan, M. A., & Cohen, L. G. (2011). Neuroplasticity in the context of motor rehabilitation after stroke. Nature Reviews Neurology, 7(2), 76-85.
Ding, Y. H., Young, C. N., Luan, X., Li, J., Rafols, J. A., Clark, J. C., McAllister, J. P., & Ding, Y. (2005). Exercise preconditioning ameliorates inflammatory injury in ischemic rats during reperfusion. Acta Neuropathologica (Berl), 109(3), 237-246.
Duzova, H., Karakoc, Y., Emre, M. H., Dogan, Z. Y., & Kilinc, E. (2009). Effects of acute moderate and strenuous exercise bouts on IL-17 production and inflammatory response in trained rats. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 8(2), 219-224.
Erfani, S., Khaksari, M., Oryan, S., Shamsaei, N., Aboutaleb, N., & Nikbakht, F. (2015). Nampt/PBEF/Visfatin exerts neuroprotective effects against ischemia/reperfusion injury via modulation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and prevention of Caspase-3 activation. Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, 56(1), 237-243.
Flansbjer, U. B., Miller, M., Downham, D., & Lexell, J. (2008). Progressive resistance training after stroke: effects on muscle strength, muscle tone, gait performance and perceived participation. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 40(1), 42-48.
Kregel, K. C., Allen, D. L., Booth, F. W., Fleshner, M. R., Henriksen, E. J., Musch, T. I., ... & Sheriff, D. D. (2006). Resource book for the design of animal exercise protocols. American Physiological Society, 152.
Kochanski, R., Dornbos, III D., & Ding, Y. (2013). Innate Tolerance in the CNS: Neuroprotection and physical preconditioning: Exercise, Hypothermia, and Hyperthermia. In Innate Tolerance in the CNS (pp. 105-131). Springer, New York, NY.
Langhammer, B., & Lindmark, B. (2012). Functional exercise and physical fitness post stroke: The importance of exercise maintenance for motor control and physical fitness after stroke. Stroke Research and Treatment, 2012, 1-9.
Lee, J. M., Zipfel, G. J., & Choi, D. W. (1999). The changing landscape of ischemic brain injury mechanisms. Nature, 399, 7-14.
Mogharnasi, M., Gaeini, A. A., & Sheikholeslami Vatani, D. (2008). Changes in pre-Inflammatory cytokines and markers of vascular inflammation after regular endurance training. Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 10(2), 125-135. [Persian]
Netto, C., Hodges, H., Sinden, J., Le Peillet, E., Kershaw, T., Sowinski, P., Meldrum, B. S., & Gray, J. A. (1993). Effects of fetal hippocampal field grafts on ischaemic-induced deficits in spatial navigation in the water maze. Neuroscience, 54(1), 69-92.
Obrenovitch, T. P. (2008). Molecular physiology of preconditioning-induced brain tolerance to ischemia. Physiological Reviews, 88(1), 211-247.
Petito, C. K., Torres-Munoz, J., Roberts, B., Olarte, J. P., Nowak, T. S., & Pulsinelli, W. A. (1997). DNA fragmentation follows delayed neuronal death in CA1 neurons exposed to transient global ischemia in the rat. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism, 17(9), 967-976.
Reyes, J. R., Wu, Y., Lai, Q., Mrizek, M., Berger, J., Jimenez, D. F., Barone, C. M., & Ding Y. (2006). Early inflammatory response in rat brain after peripheral thermal injury. Neuroscience Letters, 407(1), 11-15.
Rothwell, N. J., & Hopkins, S. J. (1995). Cytokines and the nervous system II: actions and mechanisms of action. Trends in Neurosciences, 18(3), 130-136.
Shephard, R. J., Shek, P. N. (1998). Immune responses to inflammation and trauma: a physical training modle. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 76(5), 469-472.
Stoll, G., Jander, S., & Schroeter, M. (1998). Inflammation and glial responses in ischemic brain lesions. Progress in Neurobiology, 56(2), 149-171.
Trochimiak, T., & Hubner Wozniak, E. (2012). Effect of exercise on the level of immunoglobulin A in saliva. Biology of Sport, 29(4), 255-261.
Wang, Q., Tang, X. N., & Yenari, M. A. (2007). The inflammatory response in stroke. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 184 (1-2), 53-68.
Wang, Y., & Qin, Z. h. (2012). Molecular and cellular mechanisms of excitotoxic neuronal death. Apoptosis, 15(11), 1382-1402.
Yuewen, M., Man, H., & Lin, Q. (2013). Exercise Therapy Downregulates the Overexpression of TLR4, TLR2, MyD88 and NF-κB after Cerebral Ischemia in Rats. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 149(2), 3718-3733.
Zhang, P., Zhang, Q., Pu, H., Wu, Y., Bai, Y., Vosler, P. S., … & Hu, Y. (2012). Very early-initiated physical rehabilitation protects against ischemic brain injury. Frontiers in Bioscience, 4(7), 2476-2489.