عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Background and Aim: The cultural, social, and economic situation in our society cause to have little chances to experience running event for blind children. Since running is categorized as a fundamental activity to improve cardiorespiratory fitness, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of 6 weeks of selected running training on 540 meter record in blind children. Materilas and Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental study based a «non-equivalent control group» design. Study samples were blind children from an elementary visually impaired children school in Isfahan province. Experimental group were included 8 volunteers and control group included 10 volunteers. Exercise program was consisted of 3× 45-minute sessions per week program and lasted for 6 weeks. The 540 meters running test was used For evaluating cardiorespiratory fitness. Compliance rate of experimental group to the running program was calculated by the attendance form at the training session. The data were analyzed by repeated measure ANOVA and Statistic signification was set as (p≤0.05). Results: The results showed significant interaction (F (1, 16) =3.05, p=0.03), within (F (1, 16) =19.72, p=0.001), and between (F (1, 16) =5.75, p=0.05) in favor of experimental group. At the end of training sessions compliance rate experimental group to exercise program was %94. Conclusions: Selected running training in this research can be effective to improve the record of 540 m running blind children.
Aali, Sh., & Rezazade, F. (2013). Comparison of physical fitness in blind, deaf and normal children. Studies in Sport Medicine, 5(14),135-50.
Blessing, D.L., Mccrimmon, D., Stovall, J., & Williford, H.N. (1993). The effects of regular exercise programs for visually impaired and sighted school children. Journal Visual Impairment and Blindness, 87(2), 50-52.
Brown, R.L., & Barrett, A.E. (2011). Visual impairment and quality of life among older adults: An examination of explanations for the relationship. Journal of gerontology, 66(3), 364-373.
Gasperetti, B., Milford, M., Blanchard, D., Yang, S.P., Lieberman, L., & Foley, J. T. (2010). Dance dance revolution and eye toy kinetic modifications for youths with visual impairments. Journal physical education, Recreation & Dance, 81(4), 15-55.
Houwen, S., Hartman, E., & Visscher, C. (2009). Physical activity and motor skills in children with and without visual impairments. Medicine and Science in Sports, 41, 103-109.
Hopkins, W.G., Gaeta, H., Thomas, A.C., & Hill, P. (1998). Physical fitness of blind and sighted children. Journal of Applied Physiology, 56, 69–73.
Kaufmann, K.A. (2006). Inclusive creative movement and dance. Champaign: Human Kinetics, 28-29.
Kozub, F.M. (2006). Motivation and physical activity in adolescents with visual impairments. RE: view: Rehabilitation Education Blindness Visual Impairment, 37, 146-160.
Kobberling, G., Jankowski, L.W., & Leger, L. (1989). Energy cost of locomotion in blind adolescents. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 6, 58-67.
Leverenz, l.J. Visual impairment. In: Durstine L, Moore, G.E., Painter, P.L., & Roberts, S.O. [Eds.], (2009). Exercise management for persons with chronic diseases and disabilities. 3rd ed. US: Human Kinetics, 392-396.
Lieberman, L.J., Houston-Wilson, C., & Kozub, F.M. (2002). Perceived barriers to including students with visual impairments in general physical education. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 19(3), 364-377.
Lieberman, L.J., & Mchugh, E. (2001). Health-related fitness of children who are visually impaired. Journal Visual Impairment and Blindness, 95, 272-287.
Mourae Castro, J., Costa, O., & Freitas, F. (1992). Evaluation of the aerobic capacity of blind people, by direct VO2 maximal measurement. Journal of cardiology, 11(6), 525-529.
Mojtahedei, H. (2008). Measurement and Evaluation in Physical Education. Isfahan: University of Isfahan. Publicatin [ Persian]
Petajan, J.H., Gappmaier, E., White, A.T., Spencer, M.K., Mino, L., & Hicks, R.W. (1996). Impact of aerobic training on fitness and quality of life in multipl sclerosis. Annals of neurology, 39, 432–341.
Rajabi, H., & Gaeni, A. (2003). Physical Fitness. Tehran: Samt. [Persian]
Seelye, W. (1983). Physical fitness of blind and visually impaired Detroit public school children. Journal Visual Impairment and Blindness, 77, 117–8.
Skaggs, S., & Hopper, C. (1996). Individuals with visual impairments: A review of psychomotor behavior. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 13, 16-26.
Thomas, J.R., & Nelson, J.K. (2006). Research methods in physical activity . Human Kinetics, 327.
Thomas, J.R., Walter, S., & Daniel ,M.L. (1991). What is missing in p<. 05? Effect size. Research Quarterly, 62(3), 344-348.
World Health Organization. (2014). Visual impairment and blindness- Fact Sheet N° 282. August 2014. Availableonlineat:http://www.who. int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs282/en.
Zebrowska, A., Zwierzchowska, A., & Gawlik, K. (2007). The dynamics of Maximal Aerobic Efficiency in Children and Adolescents with Hearing and Visual Impairment. Journal of Human Kinetics, 17, 50-62.