عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Background and Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the muscle architectural parameters such as muscle thickness, pennation angle and fascicle length of the biceps, brachii, and triceps brachii (long head) muscles in table tennis players. Materials and Methods: 16 table tennis players and 10 inactive individuals participated in the study, with no significant differences for their age, height, weight, and arm length parameters. Muscle thickness and pennation angle in 50%, 60% and 70% of arm length sites was measured and fascicle length was estimated by B-mode ultrasonography images. Results: The results indicated significantly greater muscle thickness for biceps brachii only in 60% and 70% sites in table tennis players. They also showed significantly greater muscle thickness, lesser pennation angle, and greater fascicle length in all sites of triceps brachii. Conclusion: It seems that muscle architectural parameters developed in table tennis players arm muscles to help them to perform their high speed movements. However, muscle thickness of biceps brachii and triceps brachii at different arm sites showed dissimilar adaptations.
1-Abe, T., Brown, J.B., Brechue, W.F., 1999. Architectural characteristic of skeletal muscle in black and white college football players. Med Sci Sports Exerc, vol. 31, pp. 1448–1452.
2-Abe, T., Kumagal, K., Brechuf, W.F., 2000. Fascicle length of leg muscles is greater in sprinters than distance runners. Med Sci Sports Exerc, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 1125–1129.
3-Asakawa, D.S., et al., 2002. Aponeurosis length and fascicle insertion angles of the Biceps Brachii. J Mech Med Biol, vol. 13, pp. 1–7.
4-Blazevich, A.J., 2006. Effects of Physical Training and Detraining, Immobilization, Growth and Aging on Human Fascicle Geometry. Sports Med, vol. 36, no. 13, pp. 1003–1017.
5-Blemker, S.S., Pinsky, P.M., and Delp, SL., 2005. A 3D model of muscle reveals the causes of nonuniform strains in the Biceps Brachii. J Biomech, vol. 38, pp. 657–665.
6-Bottinelli, R., Reggiani, C. 2006. Skeletal Muscle Plasticity in Health and Disease. Netherlands: Springer. pp. 265–288.
7-Hill, A.V., 1970. In Press First and Last Experiments in Muscle Mechanics. England: Cambridge University.
8-Kawakami, Y., 2005. The effects of strength training on muscle architecture in humans. Int J Sport health sci, vol. 3, pp. 208–218.
9-Kumagai, K., Abe, T., Brechue, W.F., Ryushi, T., et al., 2000. Sprint performance is related to muscle fascicle length in male 100-m sprinters. J Appl Physiol, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 811–816.
10-Leondes, C., 2000. Musculoskeletal Models and Technique. vol. 3. New York: CRC Press LLC.
11- Matta, T., Simão, R., de Salles, B.F., Spineti, J., et al., 2011. Strength training’s chronic effects on muscle architecture parameters of different arm sites. J Strength Cond Res, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 1711–1717.
12-Nasirzade, A.R., 2011. Architectural Characteristics of the Upper Extremity Skeletal Muscle in Birjand Male Table Tennis Players. MS dissertation, Birjand University.
13-Nasirzade, A.R., Ehsanbakhsh, A.R., Ilbeigi, S., Arghavani, H., et al., In press. Relationship between sprint performance of front crawl swimming and muscle fascicle length in young swimmers. J Sports Sci Med.
14-Pappas, G.P., Asakawa, D.S., Delp, S.L., Zajac, F.E., et al., 2002. Nonuniform shortening in the Biceps Brachii during elbow flexion. J Appl Physiol, vol. 92, pp. 2381–2389.
15-Stewart, A., Marfell-Jones, M., Olds, T., and de Ridder, H., 2011. International standards for anthropometric
assessment. New Zealand: ISAK, Lower Hutt.