عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Background and Aim: Measuring medial longitudinal arch of the foot is considered as the most important reference to identify foot disorders and to follow up treatment procedure and using footprint indexes is known as the most common method to evaluate medial longitudinal arch of foot. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of Foot Photo Box in measuring selected footprint indexes. Materials and Methods: Design of Foot Photo Box was set based on a camera and image processing technique .In order to determine the reliability of the new device, 30 male and female subjects with the average age 25.33±3.08 years, the weight 61.53±9.6 Kg, the height 168.23±9.16 cm and the body mass index 21.70±2.32 were randomly selected among the statistical population .Measurement of the footprints were repeated for 3 continuous days. To determine the reliability of the foot photo box, interclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and standard error of measurement (SEM) were used and significant level set at pResults: Interclass correlation coefficient between the 3 measurements of all footprint indexes was very strong (high). Staheli index was the most reliable index (ICC=0/96), and further the arch index (ICC=0.95), chippaux-smirak index (ICC=0.95), and footprint index (ICC=0.94) also can be considered as a reliable one. Conclusion:Results of this research showed that Foot Photo Box is a reliable devise in measuring common footprint indexes; therefore using this device is suggested for accurate and rapid measurement of footprint indexes in clinical and research centers.
Boozari, S., Jafari, H., Sanjari ,M. A., & Jamshidi, A. A. (2012). Reliability and minimal detectable change of foot arch height index device. Sports Modern Rehabilitation, 4(3,4), 35-40. [Persian]
Billis, E., Katsakiori, E., Kapodistrias, C., & Kapreli, E. (2007). Assessment of foot posture: Correlation between different clinical techniques. The Foot, 17(2), 65-72.
Chen, C. H., Huang, M. H., Chen, T. W., Weng, M. C., Lee, C. L., & Wang, G. J. (2006). The correlation between selected measurements from footprint and radiograph of flatfoot. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 87(2), 235-40.
Chen, K. C., Yeh, C. J., Kuo, J. F., Hsieh, C. L., Yang, S. F., & Wang, C. H. (2011). Footprint analysis of flatfoot in pre school aged children. European Journal of Pediatrics, 170(5), 611-7.
Everitt, B. S., & Skronadal, A. (2010). The Cambridge Dictionary of Statistics. 4th Edition, Reference Reviews. Fernandez, S., Gonzalez-Martin, C., Seoane-Pillado, T., Lopez-Calvino, B., Pertega-Diaz, S., & Gil-Guillen, V. (2015). Validity of Footprint Analysis to Determine Flatfoot Using Clinical Diagnosis as the Gold Standard in a Random Sample Aged 40 Years and Older. Journal of Epidemiology, 25(2), 148-54.
Hertel, J., Gay, M. R., & Denegar, C. R. (2002). Differences in postural control during single-leg stance among healthy individuals with different foot types. Journal of Athletic Training, 37(2), 129-132.
Hopkins, W.G. (2000). Measures of reliability in sports medicine and science. Sports Medicine, 30(1), 1-15. Jonely, H., Brismee, J. M., Sizer, P. S., & James, C. R. (2011). Relationships between clinical measures of static foot Posture and plantar pressure during static standing and walking. Clinical Biomechanics, 26(8), 873-9.
Kanatli, U., Yetkin, H., & Cila, E. (2001). Footprint and radiographic analysis of the feet. Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics, 21(2), 225-8.
Khamis, S., & Yizhar, Z. (2007). Effect of feet hyperpronation on pelvic alignment in a standing position. Gait & posture, 25(1), 127-34.
Lee, M. S., Vanore, J. V., Thomas, J. L., Catanzariti, A. R., Kogler, G., Kravitz, S. R., Miller, S. J. & Gassen, S. C. (2005). Diagnosis and treatment of adult flatfoot. The Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery, 44(2), 78-113. Lusardi, M. M., & Nilsen, C. C. (2007). Orthotics and Prosthetics in Rehabilitation. 2ed: Butterworth Henemann; Saunders, 182-3.
Mahdieh, F., Rajabi, R., & Aghayari, A. (2013). Determination of foot arch index in deferent ages groups for men and women in Esfahan city. Journal of Research in Rehabilitation Sciences, 9(6), 1063-1076. [Persian]. Mall, N. A., Hardaker, W. M., Nunley, J. A., & Queen, R. M. (2007). The reliability and reproducibility of foot type measurements using a mirrored foot photo box and digital photography compared to caliper measurements. Journal of Biomechanics, 40(5), 1171-6.
Muijs, D. (2010). Doing quantitative research in education with SPSS: Sage. http://www. modares.ac.ir/ uploads /Agr.Oth.Lib.23.pdf
Murley, G. S., Menz, H. B., & Landorf, K. B. (2009). A protocol for classifying normal-and flat-arched foot posture for research studies using clinical and radiographic measurements. Journal of Foot and Ankle Research, 2(1), 1-13.
Nawoczenski, D. A., Saltzman, C. L., & Cook, T. M. (1998). The effect of foot structure on the three-dimensional kinematic coupling behavior of the leg and rear foot. Physical Therapy, 78(4), 404-16.
Pallant, J. (2013). SPSS survival manual: McGraw-Hill Education (UK), 90-94. http://www.mheducation.co.uk/ openup/ chapters/0335208908.pdf
Papuga, M. O., & Burke, J. R. (2011). The reliability of the Associate Platinum digital foot scanner in measuring previously developed footprint characteristics: a technical note. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 34(2), 114-8.
Queen, R. M., Mall, N. A., Hardaker, W. M., & Nunley, J. A. (2007). Describing the medial longitudinal arch using footprint indices and a clinical grading system. Foot & Ankle International, 28(4), 456-62.
Razeghi, M., & Batt, M. E. (2002).Foot type classification: a critical review of current methods. Gait & posture,15(3), 282-91.
Wearing, S. C., Hills, A. P., Byrne, N. M., Hennig, E. M., & McDonald, M. (2004).The arch index: a measure of flat or fat feet? Foot & Ankle International, 25(8),575-81.
Williams, D. S ., McClay, I. S., & Hamill, J. (2001). Arch structure and injury patterns in runners. Journal of Clinical Biomechanics,16, 341-47.