تاثیر چهار هفته تمرین ویژه فوتبال بر عوامل آمادگی هوازی و آسیب عضلانی بازیکنان فوتبال مرد باشگاهی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد فیزیولوژی ورزشی/ دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی/ دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشیار گروه فیزیولوژی ورزشی/ دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی/ دانشگاه تهران

3 استاد گروه فیزیولوژی ورزشی/ دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی/ دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

زمینه و هدف: هدف از پژوهش حاضر بررسی تاثیر چهار هفته تمرین متناوب هوازی شدید ویژه فوتبال بر شاخص های عملکردی هوازی بازیکنان فوتبال می باشد. روش تحقیق: به این منظور18 بازیکن فوتبال شرکت کننده در لیگ آزادگان ایران با میانگین سنی 24 / 2± 88 / 21 سال، قد  174/22±5/32سانتی متر، وزن± 5/7  67/77 کیلوگرم و درصد چربی  12/38+ 3/29، در غالب دو گروه تمرین ) 12 نفر( و کنترل ) 6 نفر( برای شرکت در این پژوهش داوطلب شدند. یک برنامه چهار هفته ای تمرین متناوب هوازی شدید )هاف(، سه جلسه در هفته، شامل چهار دوره حرکت با توپ در یک مسیر ویژه از پیش طراحی شده، اجرا گردید. دوره های کاری فعالیت به صورت چهار دوره چهار دقیقه ای با شدت 90 - 95 درصد حداکثر ضربان قلب بود که با سه دقیقه استراحت فعال، و با 70 درصد حداکثر ضربان قلب، اجرا شد. داده ها با استفاده از آزمون های آماری tمستقل و زوجی و آنوا با اندازه گیری مکرر تجزیه و تحلیل شدند. یافته ها:نتایج نشان داد که پس از چهار هفته تمرین، VO2max، و زمان واماندگی بازیکنان اندکی افزایش یافت، اما سطوح هماتوکریت و هموگلوبین در بین دو گروه تمرینی و کنترل تغییر معناداری نکرد. با این حال، کاهش معناداری در نشانگرهای آسیب عضلانی خون پس از تمرین مشاهده شد. نتیجه گیری: بر اساس نتایج تحقیق می توان اظهار داشت که چهار هفته تمرین هاف شاخص های آسیب عضلانی بازیکنان فوتبال را به طور معنادار متاثر ساخت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of a short term soccer specific training on aerobic fitness and muscle injury of soccer players

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nima Gharahdaghi 1
  • Mohammad Reza Kordi 2
  • Abbas Ali Gaeini 3
چکیده [English]

Background and Aim: The aim of this study was to assess four weeks of high intensity aerobic interval training on aerobic performance in soccer players. Materials and Methods: 18 soccer players (weight: 67.77±5.7 kg, height: 174.22±5.33 cm, age: 21.88±2.24 years, percent body fat: 12.38±3.29 percent) were experienced in Azadegan competitions randomized and divided into two groups (training: 12 players, control: 6 players). Four weeks of high intensity aerobic interval training was performed three times a week at the end of the soccer training sessions. Training intervention consisted of interval training, comprising four bouts of four minutes work periods dribbling a soccer ball. Working intensity was at 90–95% of each player’s HRmax, with work periods separated by 3 min of jogging at 70% of HRmax. The values obtained before and after the training period were compared using Student’s paired and un-paired t –test and ANOVA Repeated Measure test. Results: The results showed that a 4 week training period caused a little increases in the VO2max and Tmax, but hematocrit and hemoglobin did not changed significantly. However, creatin phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase decreased significantly after training protocol. Conclusion: It is concluded that four weeks of high intensity aerobic interval training significantly affect muscular damage characteristics in soccer players.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • High Interval Aerobic Training
  • Muscular Injury Characteristics
  • Soccer
1-Atland, P.D., Highman, B., Garbus, J., 1964. Exercise training and altitude tolerance in rats: blood, tissue enzyme and isoenzyme changes. Aerospace Medicine, vol. 35, pp. 1034–1039.
2-Berger, N.J.A., Campbell, I.T., Wilkerson, D.P., Jones, A.M., 2006. Influence of acute plasma volume expansion on VO2 kinetics, VO2 peak, and performance during high-intensity cycle exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 101, no. 3, pp. 707–714.
3-Bexfield, N. A., Parcell, A. C., Nelson, W. B., Foote, K. M., et al. 2009. Adaptations to high-intensity intermittent exercise in rodents. Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 107, no. 3, pp. 749-754.
4-Bhagat, A., Gupta, S., Saxena, J., Tandon, H. C., Rastogi, D., Bhagat, H. 2006. Effect of antioxidant supplementation and exercise training on serum enzymes after acute exhaustive exercise. Indian Journal of physiology and pharmacology, vol.50, no.2, pp.191.
5- Bickham, D.C., Rossignol, P.F., 2004. Effects of high-intensity interval training on the accumulated oxygen deficit of endurance-trained runners. Journal of Exercise Physiology online, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 40-47.
6-Boyadjiev, N., Taralov, Z., 2000. Red blood cell variables in highly trained pubescent athletes: a comparative analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 200-204. 
7-Bravo, D.F., Impellizzeri, F.M., Rampinini, E., Castagna, C., et al. 2008. Sprint vs. interval training in football. International journal of sports medicine, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 668-674.
8-Byrnes, W.C., Clarkson, P.M., White, J.S., Hsieh, S.S., at al., 1985. Delayed onset muscle soreness following repeated bouts of downhill running. Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.59, no.3, pp.710-715.
9-Chamari, K., Hachana, Y., Kaouech, F., Jeddi, R., et al. 2005. Endurance training and testing with the ball in young elite soccer players. British journal of sports medicine, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 24-28.
10-Clark, N.A., Edwards, A.M., Morton, R.H., Butterly, R.J. 2008. Season-to-season variations of physiological fitness within a squad of professional male soccer players. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, no. 7, pp.157-165.
11-Czuba, M., Waskiewicz, Z., Zajac, A., Poprzecki, S., et al., 2011. The effects of intermittent hypoxic training on aerobic capacity and endurance performance in cyclists. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, no. 10, pp.175-183.
12- Denadai, B.S., Ortiz, M.J., Mello, M.T.D., 2004. Physiological indexes associated with aerobic performance in endurance runners: effects of race duration. Rev Bras Med Esporte, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 405-407.
13-Fontana, F.E., 2007. The effects of exercise intensity on decision making performance of experienced and inexperienced soccer players. University of Pittsburgh school of education. Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Thesis.
14- Fowler, W.M., Chowdhury, S.R., Pearson, C.M., Gardner, G., et al., 1962. Changes in serum enzyme levels after exercise in trained and untrained subjects. Journal of applied physiology, vol.17, no.6, pp.943-946.
15-Green, H.J., Sutton, J.R., Coates, G., Ali, M., et al. 1991. Response of red cell and plasma volume to prolonged training in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.70, no.4, pp.1810-1815.
16- Han, S.W., Kim, C.S., 2011. Effects of high concentration oxygen intake on muscle damage and oxidative stress after exhaustive exercise. Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry, vol. 15, no. 1,pp. 20-27.
17-Hanon, C., Leveque, J.M., Thomas, C., Vivier, L., 2008. Pacing strategy and VO2 kinetics during a 1500-m race. Pacing strategy and VO2 kinetics during a 1500-m race. International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 206–211.
18-Hellsten, Y., Apple, F.S., Sjodin, B., 1996. Effect of sprint cycle training on activities of antioxidant enzymes in human skeletal muscle. Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 81, no. 4, pp. 1484-1487.
19-Henderson, G.C., Horning, M.A., Lehman, S.L., Wolfel, E.E., et al., 2004. Pyruvate shuttling during rest and exercise before and after endurance training in men. Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.97, no. 1, pp. 317-325.
20-Hoff, J., Wisloff, U., Engen, L. C, Kemi, O.J., et al., 2002. Soccer Specific Aerobic Endurance Training. Br J Sports Med, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 218–221.
21-Karakoc, Y., Duzova, H., Polat, A., Emre, M. H., et al., 2005. Effects of training period on haemorheological variables in regularly trained footballers. British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol.39, no.2, pp.1-3.
22-Kim, H.J., Lee, Y.H., Kim, C.K., 2007. Biomarkers of muscle and cartilage damage and inflammation during a 200 km run. European Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 99, no. 4, pp. 443-447.
23-Laursen, P.B., Shing, C.M., Peake, J.M., Coombes, J.S., et al. 2002. Interval training program optimization in highly trained endurance cyclists. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol.34, no. 11, pp. 1801-1807.
24-Magalhães, J., Rebelo, A., Oliveira, E., Silva, J. R., et al., 2010. Impact of Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test versus soccer match on physiological, biochemical and neuromuscular parameters. European journal of applied physiology, vol.108, no.1, pp.39-48.
25-Magazanik, A., Weinstein, Y., Dlin, R. A., Derin, M., et al., 1988. Iron deficiency caused by 7 weeks of intensive physical exercise. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology, vol.57, no.2, pp.198-202.
26-Mchugh, M.P., 2003. Recent advances in the understanding of the repeated bout effect: the protective effect against muscle damage from a single bout of eccentric exercise. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sport, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 88-97.
27-Mcmillan, K., Helgerud, J., Macdonald, R., Hoff, J., 2005. Physiologcal Adaptations to Soccer Specific Endurance Training In Professional Youth Soccer Players. British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 273–277.
28- Mosey, T., 2009. High intensity interval training in youth soccer players – using fitness testing results practically. Journal of Australian Strength and Conditioning, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 49-51. 
29-Mujika, I., Padilla, S., Geyssant, A., Chatard, J., 1997. Hematological responses to training and taper in competitive swimmers: relationships with performance. Archives of Physiology and Biochemjstry, vol. 105, no. 4, pp. 379-385.
30- Spodaryk, K., 1993. Haematological and iron-related parameters of male endurance and strength trained athletes. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 66-70.
31- Szygula, Z., 1990. Erythrocyte system under the influence of physical exercise and training. Sports Medicine, vol. 10, no. 3. pp. 81-197.
32-Wilkinson, J., Martin, D., Adams, A., Liebman, M., 2002. Iron status in cyclists during high-intensity interval training and recovery. International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 544-548.
33- Wolfe, R.R., Jahoor, F., Miyoshi, H.,1988). Evaluation of the isotopic equilibration between lactate and pyruvate. American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 254, no. 4, pp. 532–535.