عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Background and Aim: Scientific research shows that risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is two fold in sedentary people than active people because of the increasing of inactivity level. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between physical activity and risk factors of CVD in male college students. Materials and Methods: Thirty healthy young male with mean age of 22.5±1.27 years, and body mass index of 23.7±2.69 kg/m2 were selected using the clustering method for sampling. The physical activity level was measured by the Baecke standard questionnaire. Moreover, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) also were measeard as CVD risk factors. For data analysis, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Pearson correlation coefficient were used and significant level was accepted if pResults: The result showed that there were significant negative correlation between physical activity and TC or LDL (p<0.02). Also no significant correlation were found between physical activity with TG or HDL (p>0.05). The results also showed that there were significant negative correlation between physical activity and body fat mass (p<0.001), percent body fat (p<0.005) and body mass index (p<0.003). However, there were no significant correlation between physical activity and SBP or DBP. Conclusion: Selecting an active lifestyle, in addition to maintaining body mass index in the healthy domain and also reduction of additional body fat can inhibit the risk factors of CVD in males.
1. Baker, J.L., Olsen, L.W., Sørensen, T.I.A., 2007. Childhood body-mass index and the risk of coronary heart disease in adulthood. England Journal of Medicine, vol. 357, pp. 2329-2233.
2. Banz, W.J., Maher, M.A., Thompson, W.G., Bassett, D.R., 2003. Effects of resistance versus aerobic training on coronary artery diseases risk factors. Biology Medicine, vol. 228, pp. 434-440.
3. Daniel, M., Wilbur, J., 2011. Physical activity among south Asian Indian immigrants: an integrative review. Public Health Nutritions, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 389-401.
4. Demarin, V., Lisak, M., Morovic, S., Cengic, T., 2010. Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol as the possible risk factor for stroke. Acta Clinical Croatia, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 429-439.
5. Drygas, W., Kostka, T., Jegier, A., Kunski, H., 2000. Logn-term effects of different physical activity levels on coronary heart disease risk factors in middle aged men. Acta Clinical Croatia, vol. 21, pp. 233-241.
6. Fahlman, M.M., Boaedley, D., Lambert, C.P., Flynn, M.G., 2002. Effects of endurance training and resistance training on plasma lipoprotein profiles in elderly women. Journal of Geranial Biology of science, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 54-60.
7. Gang, H.U., Barengo, N.C., Tuomilehto, J., Lakka, T.A., et al., 2004. Relationship of physical activity and body mass index to the risk of hypertension: a prospective study in Finland. Journal of Hypertension, vol. 43, pp. 25-30.
8. Gert, A.N., Lars, B.A., 2003. The association between high blood pressure, physical fitness and body mass index in adolescents. Prevention Medicine, vol. 36, pp. 229-234.
9. Hernández-Escolar, J., Herazo-Beltrán, Y., Valero, M.V., 2010. The frequency of cardiovascular disease-associated risk factors in a university student population. Review Saluda Publication, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 852-864.
10. Hunter, G., Szabo, T.K., Snder, S.W., 1997. Fat distribution, physical activity and cardiovascular risk factor. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise, vol. 26, pp. 362-368.
11. Jackson, A., Pollock, M., 1978. Generalized equations for predicting body density of men and woman. British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 40, pp. 497-504.
12. Kim, J.R., Oberman, A., Fletcher, G.F., Lee, J.Y., 2001. Effect of exercise intensity and frequency on lipid levels in men with coronary heart disease: Training level comparison trial. American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 942-946.
13. Katezmarzyk, P., Maline, R.M., Bouchard, C., 1999. Physical activity, physical fitness and coronary heart disease risk factors in youth. Journal of family nutritions, vol. 29, pp. 555-562.
14. LeMura, L.M., Von Duvillard, S.P., Andreacci, J., Klebez, J.M., et al., 2000. Lipid and lipoprotein profiles, cardiovascular fitness, bod composition, and diet during and after resistance, aerobic and combination training in young women. European Journal of Appllied physiology, vol. 82, no. 6, pp. 451-458.
15. Motykova, E., Zlatohlavek, L., Prusikova, M., Lanska, V., 2011. Lifestyle modification induced weight loss and changes of cardiometabolic risk factors including lowering of inflammatory response in obese children. Endocrinology Letter, vol. 32, no. l2, pp. 55-59.
16. Maggio, A.B., Aggoun, Y., Martin, X.E., Marchand, L.M., 2011. Long-term follow-up of cardiovascular risk factors after exercise training in obese children. International Journal of Obesity, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 603-610.
17. Meriwether, R.A., Lobelo, F., Russell, R.P., 2008. Clinical interventions to promote physical activity in youth. American Journal Life Medicine, vol. 2, no.1, pp. 7-25.
18. Naghii, M.R., Aref, M.A., Almadadi, M., Hedayati, M., 2011. Effect of regular physical activity on non-lipid (novel) cardiovascular risk factors. International Journal of Medicine Environment Health, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 380-390.
19. Park, S.K., Kwon, Y.C., Kim, H.S., Yoon, M.S,. et al., 2003. The effect of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training on abdomindal fat in obese middle–aged women. Journal of Physiology, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 129-135.
20. Puder, J.J., Schindler, C., Zahner, L., Kriemler, S., 2011. Adiposity, fitness and metabolic risk in children: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study. International Journal of Obesity, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 297-306.
21. Rabkin, S.W., Chen, Y., Leiter, L., Liu, L., et al., 1997. Risk factor correlates of body mass index. Canadian Heart Health Surveys Research Group. Canadian Medical Association Journal, vol. 1, no. 157, Suppl 1, pp. S26-31.
22. Rak, K.J., Oberman, A., Fletcher, G.F., Lee, J.Y., 2001. Effect of exercise intensity and frequency on lipid level in men with coronary heart disease. American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 87, pp. 942-946.
23. Raitakari, O.T., Taimela, S., Porkka, K.V., Viikari, J.S., 1996. Effect of leisure-time physical activity change on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in adolescents and young adults. Annual Medicine, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 259-263
24. Resaland, G.K., Anderssen, S.A., Holme, I.M., Mamen, A., et al., 2011. Effects of a 2-year school-based daily physical activity intervention on cardiovascular disease risk factors: the Sogndal school-intervention study. Scandinavia Journal Medicine Science Sport, vol. 21, no. 6, pp.122-131.
25. Robert, F., Zoeller, J.R., 2008. Lifestyle and the risk of cardiovascular disease in women: Is physical activity an equal opportunity benefactor? American Journal of Life Medicine, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 219-226.
26. Robert, F., Zoeller, J.R., 2009. Physical activity and fitness in African-Americans: Implications for cardiovascular health. American Journal Life Medicine, vol. 3, no. 3, pp.188-194.
27. Reynage, G., 1996. Interaction of the body composition nourishment, serum lipid and maximal aerobic capacity in sport recreation athletes. Review pathology Clinical, vol. 4, pp. 27-34.
28. Rin Water, D.L,. Mitchell, G., 2000. Association among 5- year change in weight, physical activity and cardiovascular disease risk factor in Mexican American. American Journal Epidemiology , vol. 4, pp. 974- 982.
29. Rosengren, A., Wilheimsen, L., 1997. Physical activity protects against coronary death from all causes in middle-aged man. Annual Epidemiology, vol. 7, pp. 69-75.
30. Samuel, S., Gidding, M.D., 2007. Special Article: Physical activity, physical fitness, and cardiovascular risk factors in childhood. American Journal Life Medicine, vol. 1, no. 6, 499-505.
31. Sadeghi, M., Roohafza, H.R., Kelishadi, R., 2004. Blood pressure and associated cardiovascular risk factors in Iran: Isfahan Healthy Heart Programme. Medicine Journal Malaysia, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 460-467.
32. Santa – Clara, H., Fernhall, B., Baptista, F., Mendes, M., at al., 2003. Effect of a one–year combined exercise training program on body composition in men with coronary artery disease. Journal of Metabolism, vol. 52, no. 11, pp. 1413-1417.
33. Sadeghipour, H.R., Rahnama, A., Salesi, M., Rahnama, N., et al., 2010. Relationship between C-reactive protein and physical fitness, physical activity, obesity and selected cardiovascular risk factors in schoolchildren. Journal of Prevention Medicine, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 242-246.
34. Schneider, H.J., Friedrich, N., Zoeller, F., Klotsche, J., et al., 2010. The predictive value of different measures of obesity for incident cardiovascular events and mortality, Journal of obesity, vol. 95, no. 4, pp. 1777-1785.
35. Sesso, H.D., Paffenbarger, R.S., Min, L., 2000. Physical activity and coronary heart disease in men. Journal of Circulation, vol.102, pp. 975-980.
36. Shiun, H.D., Takashi, H., Muto, T., Yutaka, S., 1998. Regular physical activity and coronary risk factor in Japanese men. Journal of Circulation, vol. 97, pp. 661-665.
37. Sternfeld, B., Sidney, S., Jacobs, J.R., Sadler, M.C., et al., 1999. Seven-year changes in physical fitness, physical activity, and lipid profile in the cardia study. Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults. Annual Epidemiology, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 25-33.
38. Skoumas, J., Pitsavos, C., Panagiotakos, D.B., Chrysohoou, C., et al., 2003. Physical activity, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and other lipids levels, in men and women from the ATTICA study. Lipid Health Disease, vol. 12, pp.12-16.
39. Takeshima, N., Rogers, ME., Islam, M.M., Yamauchi, T., et al., 2004. Effects of concurrent aerobic circuit exercise training on fitness in older adults. European Journal Applied Physiology, vol.93, no.2, pp.173-182.
40. Woolf, K., Reese, C.E., Mason, M.P., Beaird, L.C., et al., 2008. Physical activity is associated with risk factors for chronic disease across adult women's life cycle. Journal American Diet Associations, vol. 108, no. 6, pp. 948-959.