اثر خستگی ناشی از دویدن بر فعالیت برخی از عضلات اندام تحتانی در مرحله اتکاء

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری بیومکانیک ورزشی، دانشکده علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران

2 دانشیار دانشکده علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه بوعلی سینا، همدان، ایران

چکیده

چکیده
زمینه و هدف: خستگی ناشی از دویدن با تغییراتی در مکانیک دویدن همراه است. هدف از مطالعه حاضر تعیین اثر خستگی ناشی از دویدن روی فعالیت برخی از عضلات اندام تحتانی در مرحله اتکای دویدن بود. روش تحقیق: تعداد 20 نفر دونده مرد در این مطالعه شرکت کردند. آزمودنی‌ها قبل و پس از اجرای پروتکل خستگی، 6 بار مسیر 14 متری را دویدند. فعالیت الکترومیوگرافی سطحی عضلات درشت‌نئی قدامی، دوقلوی داخلی، دوقلوی خارجی، نعلی، پهن خارجی و دوسررانی آزمودنی‌ها قبل و پس از اجرای پروتکل خستگی ثبت شد. درصد فعالیت عضلات، شاخص هم‌انقباضی و زمان رسیدن به حداکثر فعالیت عضلات، در مرحله اتکاء دویدن ارزیابی شدند.  داده ها با استفاده از آزمون t وابسته در سطح معنی داری 0/05 تجزیه و تحلیل شدند. یافته ها: پس از خستگی در مرحله جذب، فعالیت عضلات دوقلوی داخلی (0/02=p) و دو سررانی (0/02=p) و شاخص هم انقباضی بین عضلات پهن خارجی و دوسر رانی (0/02=p)، پهن خارجی و دوقلوی خارجی (0/001=p) و درشت نئی قدامی و دوقلوی داخلی (0/01=p)؛ کاهش پیدا کرد. در مرحله تولید پس از خستگی، فعالیت عضله درشت‌نئی قدامی کاهش (0/001=p) و فعالیت عضله دوقلوی داخلی (0/01=p) افزایش پیدا کرد. در این مرحله، هم‌انقباضی عضلات درشت نئی قدامی و دوقلوی داخلی (0/0001=p) و درشت‌نئی قدامی و نعلی (0/005=p) پس از خستگی کاهش یافت. در مرحله پیش‌فعالیت، خستگی باعث افزایش فعالیت عضلات درشت نئی قدامی (0/01=p) و دوسر رانی (0/001=p) شد. هم‌چنین خستگی باعث افزایش زمان رسیدن به حداکثر فعالیت عضلات دو سررانی، دوقلوی داخلی و دوقلوی خارجی گردید (0/001=p). نتیجه‌گیری: خستگی سبب ایجاد تغییراتی در مکانیزم زمان بندی عضلانی هنگام دویدن شد که احتمالاً نتیجه تلاش سیستم عصبی بدن برای کاهش خطر ابتلاء به آسیب‌های وارد بر بدن است. از این رو، توجه به زمان بندی حداکثر فعالیت عضلات در دوندگان مبتدی به منظور پیشگیری از آسیب، پیشنهاد می­ شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effects of running-induced fatigue on some of lower limb muscles activity during stance phase

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamed Esmaeili 1
  • Mehrdad Anbarian 2
1 PhD candidate in Sport Biomechanics, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Bu Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Bu Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Background and Aim: Running-induced fatigue is associated with alterations in running mechanics. Mechanisms of
these alterations are not well known. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of running-induced fatigue on
some of lower limb muscles activity during stance phase of running. Materials and Methods: Twenty male runners
participated in this study. Subjects along a 14m runway ran 6 times before and after the fatigue protocol. Surface
electromyographic activity of Tibilalis anterior (Ta), Medial gastrocnemius (Mg), Lateral gastrocnemius (Lg), Soleus
(Sol), Vastus lateralis (Vl) and Biceps femoris (Bf) was recorded before and after the fatigue protocol. Percentage of
muscular activity, co-contraction index and time to peak muscle activity was calculated during stance phase of running.
Data was analyzes using paired t-test at significant level of pabsorption phase, Mg (p=0.02) and Bf (p=0.02) activity, and Vl-Bf (p=0.02), Vl-Lg (p=0.001) and Ta-Mg (p=0.01) co-contraction index decreased after fatigue. In propulsion phase, after fatigue, Ta (p=0.001) activity decreased while activity of Mg muscle (p=0.01) was increased. In this phase Ta-Mg (p=0.0001) and Ta-Sol (p=0.005) co-contraction index decreased after fatigue. In pre-activation phase, fatigue increased Ta (p=0.01) and Bf (p=0.0001) activity. Also, fatigue increased time to peak activity of Bf, Gm and Gl muscles (p=0.001). Conclusion: Fatigue can make alterations in running muscular mechanism indicating neural system attempt to reduce injury risk during fatigue. Therefore, in order to prevent running related injuries, we recommend considering percentage of muscular activity timing in novice runners.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Running
  • Fatigue
  • Electromyography
  • Lower limb muscles
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