تاثیر 8 هفته تمرین هوازی بر بعضی از شاخص های استقامت قلبی عروقی و ترکیب بدنی دانش آموزان پسر مقطع متوسطه شهر کاشان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد فیزیولوژی ورزشی/ دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی/ دانشگاه اصفهان/ اصفهان

2 دانشیار فیزیولوژی ورزشی/ دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه کاشان/ کاشان

3 استادیار گروه فیزیولوژی ورزشی/ دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی/ دانشگاه اصفهان/ اصفهان

4 دانشیار گروه رفتار حرکتی دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی/ دانشگاه اصفهان/ اصفهان

چکیده

زمینه و هدف: تحقیقات متعدد حاکی از رابطه نزدیک بین سامتی با شاخص های استقامت قلبی  عروقی و ترکیب بدنی می باشد و انجام تمرینات ورزشی می تواند در بهبود یا اصاح این شاخص ها نقش موثری داشته باشد. از این رو، هدف اصلی پژوهش بررسی تأثیر 8 هفته تمرین هوازی بر برخی از شاخص های فیزیولوژیک استقامت قلبی  عروقی و ترکیب بدنی در دانش آموزان 15 تا 18 سال مقطع متوسطه شهر کاشان در سال تحصیلی 91 - 1390 بود. روش تحقیق: این مطالعه به روش نیمه تجربی بود. از بین 120 نفر از دانش آموزان دبیرستان های پسرانه شهر کاشان که شرایط ورود به مطالعه را داشتند، 30 نفر به طور تصادفی انتخاب شده و به دو گروه مساوی شامل گروه تجربی (میانگین سن 30/ 1±17/46 سال، وزن 91/ 9± 73/ 56 کیلوگرم، قد 92/ 4± 73/ 168 سانتی متر و شاخص توده بدنی 42/ 3± 88/ 19 کیلوگرم/مترمربع) و کنترل (میانگین سن 18/ 1± 53/ 17 سال، وزن 11/96±60/06 کیلوگرم ، قد 84/ 7± 66/ 169 سانتی متر شاخص توده بدنی 51/ 3± 79/ 20 کیلوگرم/ مترمربع) تقسیم شدند. با استفاده از آزمون های میدانی، شاخص های حداکثر اکسیژن مصرفی، ضربان قلب پایانی و ترکیب بدنی آزمودنی ها اندازه گیری گردید. برنامه تمرینی، شامل 8 هفته تمرین هوازی، هر هفته 3 جلسه با شدت 60 تا 75 درصد ضربان قلب بیشینه بود. طی دوره تمرین، آزمودنی های گروه کنترل هیچ گونه فعالیت ورزشی منظمی نداشتند. برای طبیعی بودن توزیع داده ها از آزمون کلموگروف- اسمیرنوف، برای ارزیابی اثربخشی تمرینات از تحلیل کوواریانس و جهت اثبات فرض همگنی واریانس ها از آزمون لون استفاده شد. یافته ها: بهبودی معنی داری در شاخص حداکثراکسیژن مصرفی ( 001/ p =0 ) و ضربان قلب پایانی ( 001/ p =0 ) گروه تجربی مشاهده گردید، اما در ضخامت چربی زیر پوستی ( 86/ p=0 ) و درصد چربی بدن ( 16/ p=0 ) دو گروه تفاوت معنی داری بدست نیامد. نتیجه گیری: 8 هفته تمرین هوازی با شدت 60 تا 75 درصد حداکثر ضربان قلب بیشینه موجب بهبود شاخص های استقامت قلبی - عروقی دانش آموزان دبیرستانی شد؛ اما به دلیل برخورداری وضعیت ترکیب بدنی طبیعی، تغییر قابل ملاحظه ای در میزان چربی بدنی آن ها مشاهده نگردید. تحقیق بیشتر روی افراد دارای اضافه وزن یا چاق، تأثیر این نوع تمرین را بهتر نمایان خواهد ساخت.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training on some of cardiovascular endurance and body composition characteristics of male high school students in Kashan

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Ebrahim Bahram 1
  • Mohammad Javad Pourvaghar 2
  • Hosein Mojtahedi 3
  • Ahmad Reza Movahadi 4
چکیده [English]

Background and Aim: Many studies show that there is close relationship between health and cardiovascular endurance indices so that regular exercises can improve these indices. The main purpose of this research was to examine the effect of eight weeks of aerobic exercise training on physiological parameters as cardiovascular endurance and body composition of high school boy students aged 15 to 18 in Kashan during 2012-2011. Materials and Methods: This stud considered as a quasi-empirical research including high school student boys in Kashan. Thirty students out of 120 were selected randomly and further divided into two equal groups including the experimental group (mean age 1.30±17.46 yr., weight 9.91±56.73 kg, height 4.92±168.73 cm, BMI 3.42±19.88 kg/m2) and the control group (mean age 1.18±17.53 yr., weight 11.96±60.06 kg, height 7.84±169.66 cm, BMI 3.51±20.79 kg/m2) respectively. Variables including maximum oxygen consumption, resting heart rate and body composition were measured. The exercise program included eight-weeks of aerobic exercise, three times per week, performed at 60 to 70 percent of maximum heart rate. During the protocol, the control group had no sport activity. For statistical analysis, the Kolmogrov-Smirinov normality test along with covariance analysis and Leven tests were used. Results: The result showed that aerobic exercise significantly improved cardiovascular endurance (increased maximum oxygen consumption, p=0.001(, decreased the resting heart rate (p=0.0001(, but had no significant effect on body composition (p=0.86(, body fat percent (p=0.16( and ideal body fat (p=0.31(. No significant difference was observed in the control group (p≥ 0.05). Conclusion: Eight weeks of aerobic exercise up to %70-%60 of maximal heart rate improved cardiovascular endurance indices. Moreover, no significant changes in the body fat of the participants were observed and this may be due to normal body composition. More research on fatty people are necessary for better understanding of the issue.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cardiovascular endurance
  • Aerobic exercise
  • Body composition

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