عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Background and Aim: Many studies show that there is close relationship between health and cardiovascular endurance indices so that regular exercises can improve these indices. The main purpose of this research was to examine the effect of eight weeks of aerobic exercise training on physiological parameters as cardiovascular endurance and body composition of high school boy students aged 15 to 18 in Kashan during 2012-2011. Materials and Methods: This stud considered as a quasi-empirical research including high school student boys in Kashan. Thirty students out of 120 were selected randomly and further divided into two equal groups including the experimental group (mean age 1.30±17.46 yr., weight 9.91±56.73 kg, height 4.92±168.73 cm, BMI 3.42±19.88 kg/m2) and the control group (mean age 1.18±17.53 yr., weight 11.96±60.06 kg, height 7.84±169.66 cm, BMI 3.51±20.79 kg/m2) respectively. Variables including maximum oxygen consumption, resting heart rate and body composition were measured. The exercise program included eight-weeks of aerobic exercise, three times per week, performed at 60 to 70 percent of maximum heart rate. During the protocol, the control group had no sport activity. For statistical analysis, the Kolmogrov-Smirinov normality test along with covariance analysis and Leven tests were used. Results: The result showed that aerobic exercise significantly improved cardiovascular endurance (increased maximum oxygen consumption, p=0.001(, decreased the resting heart rate (p=0.0001(, but had no significant effect on body composition (p=0.86(, body fat percent (p=0.16( and ideal body fat (p=0.31(. No significant difference was observed in the control group (p≥ 0.05). Conclusion: Eight weeks of aerobic exercise up to %70-%60 of maximal heart rate improved cardiovascular endurance indices. Moreover, no significant changes in the body fat of the participants were observed and this may be due to normal body composition. More research on fatty people are necessary for better understanding of the issue.
1. Aaron, L., Carrel, M., Randall, C., Peterson, S., et al. 2007. School-based fitness changes are lost during the summer vacation. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, vol. 161, no. 6, pp. 561-64.
2. Anbari, S.H., Moghaddasi, M., Torkfar A., Rahimezadeh, E., et al. 2011. The effects of the recommended eight- weeks
sports-for-all program on physical fitness and general health of male employees. Armaghane-Danesh, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences Journal (YUMSJ). vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 40-49. [Persian]
3. Bassuk, S., Manson, J. 2005. Epidemiological evidence for the role of physical activity in reducing risk of composition body and cardiovascular disease. Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 99, no. 3, pp. 1193-1204.
4. Bayati, M. 2010. Physical inactivity and lifestyle without moving. Iranian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. Medical Sciences and Health Services - Shahid Beheshti, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 537-539. [Persian]
5. Biddle, S., Gorely, T., Stensel, D. 2004. Health-enhancing physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children and adolescents. Journal of Sports Sciences, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 679-701.
6. Boroghani, M., Hamedinia, M.R., Assad, M.R., Zarei, Mahdi. 2010. The study of the body mass index and physical activity among 11-14 year-old adolescent boys in Khooshab. Knowledge & Health, vol. 5, no. 2-3, pp.12-18. [Persian]
7. Boreham, C., Twisk, J., Neville, C., Savage, M., et al. 2002. Associations between physical fitness and activity patterns during adolescence and cardiovascular risk factors in young adulthood. The NorthernIreland Young Hearts Project. International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 22-6.
8. Dixon, J.B. 2010. The effect of obesity on health outcomes: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, vol. 316, no. 2, pp. 104-108.
9. Elmahgoub, S., Lambers, S., Stegen, S., Laethem, C., et al. 2009. The influence of combined exercise training on indices of obesity, physical fitness and lipid profile in overweight and obese adolescents with mental retardation. The European Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 168, n. 11, pp. 1327-1333.
10. Fuentes, T., Ara, I., Guadalupe-Grau, A., Larsen, S., et al. 2010. Leptin receptor 170 kDa (OB-R170) protein expression is reduced in obese human skeletal muscle: A potential mechanism of leptin resistance. Experimental Physiology, vol. 95, no. 1, pp, 160-71.
11. Gaeini, A., Rajabi, H. 2008. Physical fitness. Fifth Edition, Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance. [Persian]
12. Gharehdaghi, N., Kordi, M.R., Gaeini, A.A. 2013. The effect of a short term soccer specific training on aerobic fitness and muscle injury of soccer players. Journal of Practical Studies of Biosciences in Sport, vol.1, no.1, pp. 20-33. [Persian]
13. Ghorbanian, B. 2013. The assessment of body composition by bioelectrical impedance analysis among personals of Iranian Azarbayjan university of Shahid Madani. Society of Professional Journalists, vol. 5, no. 17, pp. 115-130. [Persian]
14. Hamedinia, M.R., Haghighi, A.H., Ravasi, A.A. 2009. The effect of aerobic training on inflammatory markers of cardiovascular disease risk in obese men. World Journal of Sport Sciences, vol. 2, no. 1, pp.7-12.
15. Hosseini-Kakhak, A.R., Safari, M., Hamidnia, M., 2009. Health-related physical fitness in adolescent boys Sabzevar. Journal of Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, vol. 18. No. 1, pp. 55-66. [Persian]
16. Janssen, I., LeBlanc, A. 2010. Systematic review of the health benefits of physical activity and fitness in school-aged children and youth. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, vol. 7, no. 40, pp.1-16.
17. Mazloomy-Mahmoudabad, S.S., Zolghadr. R., Mirzaie-Alavijeh, M., Hasan-Baegi, A. 2011. Relationship between chronic stress and quality of life in female students in Yazd city in 2011. Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences-Yazd, vol. 10, no. 2, pp.1-10. [Persian]
18. Mehrabani, J., Rahmani-Nia, F. 2008. Physical activity, fitness and health, Mobtakeran Publication. [Persian]
19. Minasian, V., Marandi S.M, Firozian, A. 2012. Applications developed with the health-related physical fitness for men 65-50 years old city. Research in sports physiology. no. 14, pp. 29-42. [Persian]
20. Moghaddam, M., Hajikazemi, E., Roozbeh, F., Hoshyar-Rad, A., et al. 2011. Relationship between physical activity and triceps skinfold thickness in adolescent girl students. Iran Journal of Nursing (IJN), vol. 24, No. 69, pp. 62-68.[Persian]
21. Moghaddasi, M., Naser, K., Ghanbarzadeh, M., Shakerian, S., et al. 2011. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and physical fitness in Shiraz adolescents. Iranian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 476-482. [Persian]
22. Nanney, M.S., Nelson, T., Wall. M., Haddad, T., et al. 2010. State school nutrition and physical activity policy environments and youth obesity. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 9-16.
23. Nicklas, B.J., Beavers. K.M. 2010. Exercise, weight loss, and effects on inflammation. Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 284-292.
24. Pate, R., Wang, D.M., Farrell, S., O'Neill, J. 2006. Cardiorespiratory fitness levels among US youth 12 to 19 years of age: findings from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, vol. 160, no. 10, pp. 1005-12.
25. Patrick, W.C., Zhaowei, K., Choung. R. 2010. Effects of short –term resistance training on serum leptin levels in obese adolescents. Journal of Exercise Science & Fitness, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 54-60.
26. Penedo, F., Dahn, J. 2005. Exercise and well-being: a review of mental and physical health benefits associated with physical activity. Current opinion in psychiatry, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 189-93.
27. Poraram, H., Aminpour. A., Sheriff, N., Golestan, B., et al. 2002. Investigation of anthropometric measurements of weight, height, skinfold and body mass index (BMI) in girls high school students in urban and rural Astaneh Ashrafieh. Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, vol.12, no. 57, pp. 41-54. [Persian]
28. Rahmani-Nia, F., Daneshmandi, H., Darbani, H. 2002. Determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in boys and its relationship to physical activity level. Journal of Harekat, no. 22, pp. 34-42. [Persian]
29 Shahidi, F., Lotfi, G., Rostamzadeh, N. 2012. The relationship between physical fitness and serum lipids and body fat percentage
difference variables in the 13-15 year old male students in urban and rural. Sport Physiology, vol. 3, no. 12, pp. 77-94. [Persian]
30. Shields, M., Tremblay, M.S., Laviolette, M., Craig, C. et al. 2010. Fitness of Canadian adults: Results from the 2007-2009 Canadian
Health Measures Survey. Statistics Canada Catalogue. vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 82-83.
31. Soori, R. 2013.The comparison of effect of dose response relate to number of training sessions of physical fitness in sedentary adolescence boys. Society of Professional Journalists, vol. 5, no. 17, pp. 13-28. [Persian]
32. Villarreal, De., Requena, E.S., Newton, R.U. 2010. Does plyometric training improve strenght performance? A Meta-analysis. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, no. 13, pp. 513-522.
33. Wojtek, J., David, N., Maria, A., Christopher, T., et al. 2009. Exercise and physical activity for older adults. Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine, vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 1510-1530.