عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Background and Aim: Nowadays despite the world minded against the use of steroids, unfortunately the use of these drugs is increased by athletes. The purpose of this study was to identify the amount of prevalence awareness and complications of anabolic steroids in male athletes. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study in the city of Mashhad and included bodybuilding athletes. A questionnaire with 19 questions whose validity that already confirmed by 13 doping experts was used. Moreover, the reliability of the questionnaire was calculated through evaluation of the collected data from 30 participants and measuring the Cronbach›s alpha (α=0.80). The questionnaires were then distributed among 300 male athletes from eleven clubs that were randomly chosen as a cluster method. To analyze the data descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, mean) and independent t-test were used. Results: The results indicated about of 64% of athletes were used from steroid drugs. Data also indicated that there was a significant correlation between the history of the championship with the prevalence of drug use (p Conclusions: It seems that coaches and athletes haven’t enough knowledge about the affects of the steroids in the body, so they use a lot of these kind of drug. Therefore it is necessary to make comprehensive and educational course to improve the knowledge of athletes and coaches.
1. Arazi, H., Hosseini, R. 2011. The prevalence of anabolic-androgenic steroids abuse, knowledge and attitude of their side effects, and attitude toward them among the bodybuilding athletes in Rasht. Journal of Guilan University of Medical Sciences, vol. 20, no. 80,pp. 34-41.[Persian]
2. Arazi, H., Bazyar, F. 2014. Anabolic steroids abuse prevalence and negative consequences of their knowledge and attitudes of bodybuilders in Karaj. Alborz University of Medical Sciences, vol. 3, no.1, pp. 48-56. [Persian]
3. Azizi, M., Mali, A.D., Tabari, E. 2012 . Study of prevalence of supplement use and knowledge of men national team rowers about doping and side effects. World Applied Sciences Journal, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 724-728. [Persian]
4. Coward, R.M., Rajanahally, S., Kovac, JR., Smith, R.P. et al. 2013. Anabolic steroid induced hypogonadism in young men. The Journal of Urology, vol. 190, no. 6, pp. 2200-2205.
5. Finkelstein, J.S., Lee, H., Burnett-Bowie, S.A.M., Pallais, JC. et al. 2013. Gonadal steroids and body composition, strength, and sexual function in men. New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 369, no. 11, pp. 1011-1022.
6. Grace, F., Sculthorpe, N., Baker, J., Davies, B. 2003. Blood pressure and rate pressure product response in males using high-dose anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS). Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 307-312.
7. Hallabchi, F., Esteghamati, A., Mansouria, M. 2009. The Knowledge of club wrestlers of Tehran about doping issues and their estimation of current prevalence. Journal of Sport Biosciences, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 105-121. [Persian]
8. Handelsman, D.J. 2008. Indirect androgen doping by oestrogen blockade in sports. British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 154, no. 3,pp. 598-605.
9. Juhn, M.S. 2003. Popular sport supplement and ergogenic aids. Sport Medicine, vol. 33, no. 12 , pp. 921-939.
10. Kargarfard, M., Ghias, M., Karimzadegan, A.R., Kashi, A. 2006. Assumption of anabolic-androgenic steroids among Isfahan university students: Prevalenceandawareness about their side effects. The Quarterly Journal of Fundamentals of Mental Health, vol. 32, no. 8, pp. 73-80. [Persian]
11. Khajevand, N. 2011. Anabolic steroids and nutritional supplements in sports. Tehran: Bamdad Ketab Publication. [Persian]
12. Lundholm, L., Käll, K., Wallin, S., Thiblin, I. 2010. Use of anabolic androgenic steroids in substance abusers arrested for crime. Drug Alcohol Depend Elsevier, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 222–226.
13. Martin, K., Ryna, L.M., Susan, B., Anne, F. 2005. Dietary supplement use by varsity athletes at a Canadian university. International Journal of Exercise Metabolism, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 195- 210.
14. Michael, R., Graham, B.D., Tergal, M., Grace, A.K., et al. 2006. Anabolic steroid use patterns of use and detection of doping. Sports Medicine Journal, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 505-525.
15. Montisci, M., El Mazloum, R., Cecchetto, G., Terranova, C. et al. 2012. Anabolic androgenic steroids abuse and cardiac death in athletes: morphological and toxicological findings in four fatal cases. Forensic science International, vol. 217, no.1, pp. 13-18.
16. Morente, S.J., Zabala, M. 2013. Doping in sport: a review of elite athletes’ attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge. Sports Medicine, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 395-411.
17. Naghdi, H., Mohammadi, S. 2013. Prevalence and awareness of the side effects of anabolic steroid use among school students in Kurdistan. Journal of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, vol.17, no. 3, pp. 206-209. [Persian]
18. Neri, M., Bello, S., Bonsignore, A., Cantatore, S. et al. 2011. Anabolic androgenic steroids abuse and liver toxicity. Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry, vol.11, no. 5, pp. 430-437.
19 Padersen. W., Wichstrom. L., Blekesaune. M., Violent. B. 2001. Doping agent: A normal population study of adolescents. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 808-832.
20 Peretti, W.P., Guagliardo, V., Verger, P. 2004. Attitudes toward doping and recreational drug use among French elite
student athletes. Sociology of Sports Journal, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 17-24.
21 Perry, P.J., Kutcher, E.C., Lund, B.C., Yates, W.R., et al. 2003. Measures of aggression and mood changes in male weightlifters with and without androgenic anabolic steroid use. Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol.48, no. 2, pp.646-51.
22 Rahimi, M., Siabani, H., Siabani, S., Rezaei, M. 2008. Effect of education on performance-enhancing drug abuse bybodybuilders. Journal of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 26-37. [Persian]
23. Rashidlamir, A., Dehbashi, M., Ketabdar, B. 2014. The effects of anabolic - androgenic steroids abuse on the level of liver enzymes and serum albumin among bodybuilding athletes. Shomal Journal of Management and Physiology in Sport, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 9-18. [Persian]
24. Salter, G., Tan, B., Chuan, K. 2003. Dietary supplementation practices of Singaporean athletes. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, vol.13, no. 1, pp. 320-332.
25 Street, C., Antonio, J., Cudlipp, D. 1996. Androgen use by athletes. A reevaluation of the health risks. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 21, no. 6 , pp. 421-440.
26. Tasgin, E., SefaLok, F., Demir, N. 2011. Combined usage of testosterone and nandrolonemaycause heart damage. African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 3766-3768.
27. Wiefferink, C.H., Detmar, S.B., Coumans, B., Vogels, T., et al. 2008. Social psychological determinants of the use of performance, enhancing drugs by gym users. Health Education Research, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 70-80.
28. Williams, M.H. 1994. The use of nutritional ergogenic aids in sports, Is it an ethical issue? Internationaln Journal Sport Nutrition, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 120-130.
29. Wroble, R.R., Gray, M., Rodrigo, J.A. 2002. Anabolic steroids and preadolescent athletes: prevalence, knowledge, and attitudes. Sport Journal, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 1-8.