اثر بی تمرینی بر عوامل آمادگی جسمانی و پاسخ لاکتات خون در دختران نوجوان تکواندوکار

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران.

2 کارشناسی ارشد، گروه تربیت بدنی دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

زمینه و هدف: بی تمرینی موجب تغییراتی در پاسخ لاکتات خون و عوامل آمادگی جسمانی می شود. بنابراین هدف تحقیق حاضر بررسی تاثیر سه هفته بی تمرینی بر پاسخ لاکتات خون به تمرین میت زنی و عوامل آمادگی جسمانی مرتبط با تکواندو در دختران نوجوان بود. روش تحقیق: هجده تکواندوکار دختر با میانگین سنی 64/1±13 سال و سابقه ورزشی 05/1±07/6 سال به صورت تصادفی به دو گروه تمرین (9 نفر) و بی تمرین (9 نفر) تقسیم شدند. متغیرهای تحقیق قبل و بعد از سه هفته در هر دو گروه اندازه گیری شدند. گروه بی تمرین در این 3 هفته تمرینات خود را قطع کردند، اما گروه دیگر به برنامه تمرینی خود ادامه دادند. لاکتات خون قبل و بلافاصله بعد از تمرین میت زنی اندازه گیری شد؛ بدین صورت که پس از 20 دقیقه گرم کردن، تمرین میت زدن (تمرین پرقدرت، با شدت زیاد در مدت زمان کم) با 3 تکرار و هر تکرار به صورت 20 ثانیه فعالیت و 20 ثانیه استراحت به اجرا درآمد. هم چنین شاخص های چابکی، توان بی هوازی، توان عضلانی و سرعت عکس العمل با آزمون های معتبر مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. آزمون تحلیل واریانس با اندازه گیری مکرر برای بررسی تغییرات درون گروهی و آزمون MANCOVA برای مقایسه بین گروه ها مورد استفاده قرار گرفت و سطح معنی داری 05/0> pدر نظر گرفته شد. یافته ها: در هر دو گروه در پاسخ به تمرینات میت زنی، لاکتات خون به طور معنی داری افزایش معنی داری پیدا کرد (001/0=p)؛ اما این پاسخ بعد از سه هفته  مداخله در نظر گرفته شده، تفاوت معنی داری نداشت (00/1=p). بعد از سه هفته بی تمرینی، متغیرهای توان عضلانی (01/0=p)، چابکی (04/0=p) و توان بی هوازی (01/0=p) بطور معنی داری نسبت به قبل از سه هفته بی تمرینی افت پیدا کرد؛ اما سرعت عکس العمل تغییر معنی داری نداشت (17/0=p). نتیجه گیری: به نظر می رسد سه هفته بی تمرینی دختران تکواندوکار تغییری در پاسخ لاکتات خون به تمرین میت زنی، و سرعت عکس العمل بوجود نمی آورد، اما موجب افت سایر شاخص های آمادگی جسمانی وابسته به مهارت می شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of detraining on physical fitness and lactate response in taekwondo teenage girls

نویسندگان [English]

  • Roghayyeh Afroundeh 1
  • Marzieh Papi Sad 2
  • Farnaz Seifi Skishahr 1
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Education and Psychology, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.
2 MSc in Physical Education, Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Background and Aim: Detraining could causes changes in blood lactate response and physical fitness factors. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three-weeks of detraining on blood lactate response to kick exercise and physical fitness factors related to Taekwondo in teenage girls. Materials and Methods: Eigtheen taekwondo athlete girls with mean age of 13±1.64 years and taekwondo experience period with 6.07±1.05 years were randomly divided into training (n=9) and detraining (n=9) groups. Dependent variables were measured before and after three weeks in both groups. Detraining groups stopped their training program during the three weeks but training group continued their training program. Blood lactate was measured before and immediately after kick exercise; in this way, after 20 minutes of warm-up, kick exercise (short time, high-intensity exercise) were performed with 3 repetitions, each repetition was included 20 seconds of activity and 20 seconds of recovery. Anaerobic power, agility, muscular power and reaction time were also evaluated with valid tests. Repeated measurement ANOVA and MANCOVA tests were used for statistical analysis of inter group and between groups changes respectively and significant level was considered at P>0.05. Results: Blood lactate after kick exercise was increased significantly in both groups pre and post 3 weeks (p=0.001), but it was not significantly differ before and after intended three weeks (p=1.000). In detraining group, muscular power (p=0.01), agility (p=0.04) and anaerobic power (p=0.01) decreased significantly after three weeks of detracting as compared to before three weeks detraining but reaction time did not significantly changed (p=0.17). Conclusion: It seems three weeks of detraining in Taekwondo girls does not induce any change in lactate response to kick exercise and their reaction time but decreases the other skill related physical fitness factors.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Detraining
  • Blood lactate
  • Muscular power
  • reaction time
  • Taekwondo
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