عنوان مقاله [English]
Background and Aim: Diabetes is a health problem in all societies, and exercise training is one of the best method to control blood glucose levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 8 weeks of endurance training on omentin-1 gene expression of visceral adipose tissue in diabetic male rats. Materials and Methods: Among 19 male rats 6 mice were randomly selected as controls basic group. The remaining rats were given a high-fat diet and free access to food and water and then diabetes was induced by streptozotocin. Diabetic rats were divided into two groups including endurance training (n=6) and control (n=7) groups. Endurance training exercised on a treadmill up to 50 to 70 percent of maximal oxygen uptake, 5 days per week for 8 weeks based on the overload pattern. After 8 weeks, samples of visceral adipose tissue were collected and omentin-1 gene expression determined using RT-PCR method. It is applied the ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests for extracted of results using SPSS software at the significant level of p<0.05. Results: There were no significant differences in the weight of rats in baseline and after 8 weeks of endurance training (p>0.05). However, omentin-1 gene expression significantly increased after continuous endurance training (p=0.001). Conclusion: Based on omentin-1 gene expression improvement and its role to activation of AKT pathway and glucose uptake elevation by adipose tissue, it seems that this adipokine have an important effect in lowering blood sugar in diabetic patients.
Abd-Elbaky, A.E., Abo-ElMatty,D.M., Mesbah, N.M., &Ibrahim, S.M.(2016). Omentin and apelin concentrations in relation to obesity, diabetes mellitus type two, and cardiovascular diseases in Egyptian population. International Journal of Diabetes in Developing Countries, 36(1), 52-58.
Ahima, R. S., & Osei, S. Y.(2008).Adipokines in obesity. Obesity and Metabolism, 36, 197-182.
Antuna-Puente, B., Feve, B., Fellahi, S., & Bastard, J. P.(2008). Adipokines: the missing link between insulin resistance and obesity. Diabetes & Metabolism, 34(1),2-11.
Bai, L., Wang, Y., Fan, J., Chen, Y., Ji, W., Qu, A., ... & Xu, T. (2007). Dissecting multiple steps of GLUT4 trafficking and identifying the sites of insulin action. Cell Metabolism, 5(1), 47-57.
Bakhai, A.(2008). Adipokines—targeting a root cause of cardiometabolic risk. QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, 101(10),767-776.
Blake, G. J., & Ridker, P. M. (2001). Novel clinical markers of vascular wall inflammation. Circulation Research, 89(9), 763-771.
Cai, R. C., Wei, L., Di, J. Z., Yu, H. Y., Bao, Y. Q., & Jia, W. P.(2009). Expression of omentin inadipose tissues in obese and type 2 diabetic patients. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi, 89(6), 381-384
Campaigne, B. N., & Lampman, R. M. (1994). Exercise in the clinical management of diabetes. Human Kinetics Publishers.
Daglioglu, O.(2013). Theeffect of 8-weeksubmaximalaeribicexerciseoncardiovascularparametersand bodycompositionin young men. International Journal of Academic Research, 5(4).
De Souza Batista, C. M., Yang, R. Z., Lee, M. J., Glynn, N. M., Yu, D. Z., Pray, J., ... & Fried, S. K. (2007). Omentin plasma levels and gene expression are decreased in obesity. Diabetes, 56(6), 1655-1661.
Fathi, R., Mohammadi, S., Talebi-Garekani, E., Roodbari, F., & Alinejad, M.(2012a). Acute and delayed response of aerobic training on omentin-1 plasma levels in diabetic rats. Journal of Sport in Biomotor Sciences, 5(1), 48-55. [persian].
Fathi, R., Mohammadi, S., & Talebi-Garekani, E. (2012b). Effect of one session of aerobic training on adipose tissue omentin-1 gene expression in diabetic rats. Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology, 16, 31-44. [persian]
Fink, M., & Taylor, M. A.(2006).Catatonia: a clinician's guide to diagnosis and treatment. 1th Edition. Cambridge University Press.
Fu, M., Gong, D.W., Damcott, C., Sabra, M., Yang, R., Pollin, T., …& O'connell, J.R.(2004). Systematic analysis of omentin 1 and omentin 2 on 1q23 as candidate genes for type 2 diabetes in the Old Order Amish. Diabetes, 53, 59.
Gulcelik, N. E., Usman, A., & Gürlek, A.(2009). Role of adipocytokines in predicting the development of diabetes and its late complications. Endocrine, 36(3), 397-403.
Hajer, G. R., van, Haeften, T. W., & Visseren, F. L.(2008). Adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity, diabetes, and vascular diseases. European Heart Journal, 29(24), 2959-2971.
Hida, K., Wada, J., Eguchi, J., Zhang, H., Baba, M., Seida, A., ... & Shikata, K. (2005). Visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor: a unique insulin-sensitizing adipocytokine in obesity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 102(30), 10610-10615.
Holten, M. K., Zacho, M., Gaster, M., Juel, C., Wojtaszewski, J. F., & Dela, F.(2004). Strength training increases insulin-mediated glucose uptake, GLUT4 content, and insulin signaling in skeletal muscle in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes, 53(2), 294-305.
Holmes, A., Coppey, L. J., Davidson, E. P., & Yorek, M. A. (2015). Rat models of diet-induced obesity andhigh fat/low dose streptozotocin type 2 diabetes:effect of reversal of high fat diet compared totreatment with enalapril or menhaden oil onglucose utilization and neuropathic endpoints. Journal of Diabetes Research,2015,1-8.
Inadera, H.(2008). The usefulnessof circulating adipokine levels for the assessment of obesity-related health problems. Inernational Journal of Medical Science, 5(5), 248-262.
Karmazyn, M., Purdham, D. M., Rajapurohitam, V., & Zeidan, A.(2008). Signalling mechanisms underlying the metabolic and other effects of adipokines on the heart. Cardiovascular Research, 79(2), 279-286.
Leandro, C. G., Levada, A. C., Hibara, S. M., & Manhaes-de-castro, R. (2007). A Program of moderate physical training for Wistar rats based on maximal oxygen consumption. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 21(3), 751-756.
Livak, K. J., & Schmittgen, T. D.(2001). Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2− ΔΔCT method. Methods, 25(4), 204-208.
Manetta, J., Brun, J. F., Maimoun,L., Callis, A., Préfaut, C., & Mercier, J.(2002). Effect of training on the GH/IGF-I axis during exercise in middle-aged men: relationship to glucose homeostasis. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, 283(5), 929-936.
Moreno-Navarrete, J.M., Catalán, V., Ortega, F., Gómez-Ambrosi, J., Ricart, W., Frühbeck, G.,& Fernández-Real, J. M. (2010). Circulating omentin concentration increases after weight loss. Nutrition & Metabolism,7(1), 1-6.
Ojuka, E. O.(2004). Role of calcium and AMP kinase in the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and GLUT4 levels in muscle. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 63(2), 275-278.
O’Leary, V. B., Marchetti, C. M., Krishnan, R. K., Stetzer, B. P., Gonzalez, F., & Kirwan, J. P.(2006). Exercise-induced reversal of insulin resistance in obese elderly is associated with reduced visceral fat. Journal of Applied Physiology, 100(5), 1584-1589.
Safarzadeh, A., Gharakhanlou, R., Hedayati, M., & Talebi, G. E. (2012). The effect of 4 weeks resistance training on serum vaspin, IL-6, CRP and TNF-α concentrations in diabetic rats. Iranian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 14(1), 68-74.[Persian]
Saremi, A., Asghari, M., & Ghorbani, A.(2010). Effects of aerobic training on serum omentin-1 and cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight and obese men. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28(9), 993-938.
Šenolt, L., Polanská, M., Filková, M., Cerezo, L. A., Pavelka, K., Gay, S., ... & Vencovský, J. (2010). Vaspin and omentin: new adipokines differentially regulated at the site of inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 69(7), 1410-1411.
Shavandi, N., Shahrjerdi,S., Sheikh Hoseini, R., & Ghorbani, A.(2010). The effect of strengthening exercises on metabolic factors, quality of life and mental health in women with type 2 diabetes. Iranian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 12(3), 222-230. [persian]
St Jean, P., Hsueh, W. C., Mitchell, B., Ehm, M., Wagner, M., Burns, D., & Shuldiner, A. R. (2000). Association between diabetes, obesity, glucose and insulin levels in the Old Order Amish and SNPs on 1q21-q23. American Journal of Human Genetics, 67(4),332-332.
Takala, T. O, Nuutila, P., Knuuti, J.,Luotolahti, M., & Yki-Järvinen, H.(1999). Insulin action on heart and skeletal muscle glucose uptake in weight lifters and endurance athletes. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology And Metabolism. 276(4), 706-711.
Talebi-Garakani, E., Fathi, R., Safarzade, A., Moradi, H., & Delbari, R. (2013). The effect of 4 weeks resistance training on plasma omentin-1 concentrations in diabetic rats. Journal of Metabolism and Exercise, 2(2), 91-100.[persian]
Tan, B. K., Adya, R., Farhatullah, S., Lewandowski, K. C., O’Hare, P., Lehnert, H., & Randeva, H. S. (2008). Omentin-1, a novel adipokine, is decreased in overweight insulin-resistant women with polycystic ovary syndrome: ex vivo and in vivo regulation of omentin-1 by insulin and glucose. Diabetes, 57(4), 801-808.
Teixeira-Lemos, E., Nunes, S., Teixeira, F., & Reis, F. (2011). Regular physical exercise training assists in preventing type 2 diabetes development: focus on its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Cardiovascular Diabetology, 10(1), 1-15.
Venables, M. C., & Jeukendrup, A. E.(2009). Physical inactivity and obesity: links with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews, 25(1), 18-23.
Xiang, K., Wang, Y., Zheng, T., Jia, W., Li, J., Chen, L., ... & Wang, C. (2004). Genome-wide search for type 2 diabetes/impaired glucose homeostasis susceptibility genes in the Chinese: significant linkage to chromosome 6q21-q23 and chromosome 1q21-q24. Diabetes, 53(1), 228-234.
Yang, R., Xu, A., Pray, J., Hong, H., Jadhao, S., Hansen, B., …& Gong, D.(2003). Cloning of omentin, a new adipocytokine from omental fat tissue in humans. Diabetes, 52.
Yang, R. Z., Lee, M. J., Hu, H., Pray, J., Wu, H. B., Hansen, B. C., ... & Gong, D. W. (2006). Identification of omentin as a novel depot-specific adipokine in human adipose tissue: possible role in modulating insulin action. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism, 290(6), E1253-E1261.