عنوان مقاله [English]
Background and Aims: Some studies have shown the effectiveness of exercise training on the side effects of MS patinas. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of progressive resistance training on balance, body fat percentage, muscle strength and endurance in men and women with MS disease. Materials and Methods: 18 MS patients with (mean of age: 29.4±7.9 years, weight: 69.7±14.4 kg) were selected by targeted sampling and then randomly assigned into two groups as experimental (n=10) and control (n=8). The experimental group performed resistance exercise for 12 weeks, three sessions per week, each session for 70 minutes with 50 - 80% of 1RM, while, the control group did not perform any regular exercise during course of the study. The stork test was used to evaluate the static balance. For measuring body fat percentage, muscle strength and muscular endurance, the Yuhasz test, one repetition maximum test and dynamic muscular endurance test were used, respectively. For statistical analysis, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measure and Bonferroni post hoc test at level of 0.05 were used. Results: The results showed that after 12 weeks of resistance training, there were significant increase in muscle strength (p=0.0001), balance (p=0.002), muscular endurance (p=0.0001) in experimental group, while, body fat percentage significantly decreased (P=0.02). Moreover, there was also a significant difference between the two for 1RM after post test measurements based on experimental group. Conclusion: The finding of present study indicated that 12 weeks of moderate-intensity resistance training can improve the physical fitness indices of multiple sclerosis patients and provide a suitable prescription for improving the physical fitness of these patients.
Aimeta, M., Lampichlera, J., Musila, U., Spiesbergera, R., Pelikana, J., & Schmida, J. (2006). High and moderate intensities in strength training in multiple sclerosis. Isokinetics and Exercise Science, 14(2), 153.
Ainsworth, B. E., Macera, C. A., Jones, D. A., Reis, J. P., Addy, C. L., & Bowles, H. R. (2006). Comparison of the 2001 BRFSS and the IPAQ Physical Activity Questionnaires. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(9), 1584-1592.
Annovazzi, P., Tomassini, V., Bodini, B., Boffa, L., Calabrese, M., Cocco, E., ... & Malucchi, S. (2013). A cross-sectional, multicentre study of the therapeutic management of multiple sclerosis relapses in Italy. Neurological Sciences, 34(2), 197-203.
Aryan, R., Shaterzadeh Yazdi, M. J., Sharaf Aldinzadeh, N., Gouharpey, SH., & Arastou, A. A. (2010). Investigation of body balance in people with multiple sclerosis in Khouzestan province: Use of clinical functional balance tests. Jundishapur Scientific Medical Journal, 9(1), 35-43. [Persian]
Ayan Perez, C., Martin, S. V., De Sousza, T. F., & De paz Fernandez, J. A. (2007). Effect of a resistance training program in multiple sclerosisspanish patient: A pilot study. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 16, 143-153.
Benito, J. (2011). Physical Activity in multiple sclerosis. Neuroepidemiology, 36, 192-193.
Broekmans, T., Roelants, M., Feys, P., Alders, G., Gijbels, D., Hanssen, I., ... & Eijnde, B. O. (2011). Effects of long-term resistance training and simultaneous electro-stimulation on muscle strength and functional mobility in multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis Journal, 17(4), 468-477.
Brzycki, M. (1993). Strength testing—predicting a one-rep max from reps-to-fatigue. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 64(1), 88-90.
Capodaglio, P., Facioli, M., Burroni, E., Giordano, A., Ferri, A., & Scaglioni, G. (2002). Effectiveness of a home-based strengthening program for elderly males in Italy. A preliminary study. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 14(1), 28-34.
De Souza-Teixeira, F., Costilla, S., Ayan, C., Garcia-Lopez, D., Gonzalez-Gallego, J., & De Paz, J. A. (2009). Effects of resistance training in multiple sclerosis. International journal of sports medicine, 30(4), 245-250.
DeBolt, L. S., & McCubbin, J. A. (2004). The effects of home-based resistance exercise on balance, power, and mobility in adults with multiple sclerosis. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 85(2), 290-297.
Donato, S. M., & Pulaski, K. H. (2004). Overview of balance impairment: Functional implications. In Stroke Rehabilitional, 2th Edition. Usa: Mosby, 145-163.
El Haber, N., Erbas, B., Hill, K. D., & Wark, J. D. (2008). Relationship between age and measures of balance, strength and gait: linear and non-linear analyses. Clinical Science, 114(12), 719-727.
Enoka, R. M. (1988). Muscle strength and its development: new perspectives. Sports Medicine, 6(3),146-168.
Fisher, N. M., Lenox, J., Granger, C. V., Brown-scheidle, C., & Jacobs, L. (2000). Effects of an anti-fatiguing exercise program on fatigue and physiological function in patients with multiple sclerosis. Neurology, 54(7), 338.
Flensner, G., Anna-Christina, Ek., & Söderhamn, O. (2003). Lived experience of MS-related fatigue—a phenomenological interview study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 40(7), 707-717.
Foley, P. (2000). The L-DOPA story revisited. Further surprises to be expected?. In: Riedere, P., et al. (Eds), Advances in Research on Neurodegeneration. Springer, Viena. 1-20.
Freeman, J. A., Gear, M., Pauli, A., Cowan, P., Finnigan, C., Hunter, H., ... & Thain, J. (2010). The effect of core stability training on balance and mobility in ambulant individuals with multiple sclerosis: a multi-centre series of single case studies. Multiple Sclerosis Journal, 16(11), 1377-1384.
Guclu-Gunduz, A., Citaker, S., Irkec, C., Nazliel, B., & Batur-Caglayan, H. Z. (2014). The effects of pilates on balance, mobility and strength in patients with multiple sclerosis. NeuroRehabilitation, 34(2), 337-342.
Gutierrez, G. M., Chow, J. W., Tillman, M. D., McCoy, S. C., Castellano, V., & White, L. J. (2005). Resistance training improves gait kinematics in persons with multiple sclerosis. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 86(9), 1824-1829.
Harvey, L., Smith, A. D., & Jones, R. (1999). The effect of weighted leg raises on quadriceps strength, EMG parameters and functional activities in people with multiple sclerosis. Physiotherapy, 85(3), 154-161.
Heyward, V. H. (1998). Advanced Fitness Assessment and Exercise Prescription.3th Edition. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Hubal, M. J., Gordish-Dressman, H., Thompson, P. D., Price, T. B., Hoffman, E. P., Angelopoulos, T. J. & ... & Zoeller, R. F. (2005). Variability in muscle size and strength gain after unilateral resistance training. Medine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 37(6), 964-72.
Jackson, K., Mulcare, J. A., Donahoe-Fillmore, B., Fritz, H. I., & Rodgers, M. M. (2007). Home balance training intervention for people with multiple sclerosis. International Journal of MS Care, 9(3), 111-117.
Jagannath, V. A., Fedorowicz, Z., Asokan, G. V., Robak, E. W., & Whamond, L. (2010). Vitamin D for the management of multiple sclerosis. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (12), 1-24.
Johnson, B. L., & Nelson, J. K. (1979). Practical measurements for evaluation in Physical education. 4th Edition. Minneapolis: Burgess.
Katayama, Y., Senda, M., Hamada, M., Kataoka, M., Shintani, M., & Inoue, H. (2004). Relationship between postural balance and knee and toe muscle power in young women. Advanced Medica Okayama, 58, 189-196.
Keen, D., Yue, G. H., & Enoka, R. M. (1994). Training related enhancements in the control of motor output in elderly humans. Journal of Applied Physiology, 77(6), 2648-2658.
Kileff, J., & Ashburn, A. (2005). Apilot study of the effect of aerobic exercise on people with moderate disability multiple sclerosis. Clinical Rehabilitation, 19(2), 165–69.
Kraemer, W. J., & Spiering, B. A. (2006). Skeletal muscle physiology: plasticity and responses to exercise. Hormone Research in Paediatrics, 66(1), 2-16.
Kraft, G., Alquist, A. D., & De Lateur, B. J. (1996). Effects of resistive exercise on function in multiple sclerosis. Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, 33, 328-333.
Motl, R. W., Arnett, P. A., Smith, M. M., Barwick, F. H., Ahlstrom, B., & Stover, E. J. (2008). Worsening of symptoms is associated with lower physical activity levels in individuals with multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis Journal, 14(1), 140-142.
Mount, J., & Dacko, S. (2006). Effects of dorsiflexor endurance exercises on foot drop secondary to multiple sclerosis: a pilot study. NeuroRehabilitation, 21(1), 43-50.
Nakahara, J., Maeda, M., Aiso, S., & Suzuki, N. (2012). Current concepts in multiple sclerosis: autoimmunity versus oligodendrogliopathy.Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology, 42(1), 26-34.
Rampello, A., Franceschini, M., Piepoli, M., Antenucci, R., Lenti, G., Olivieri, D., & Chetta, A. (2007). Effect of aerobic training on walking capacity and maximal exercise tolerance in patients with multiple sclerosis: a randomized crossover controlled study. Physical Therapy, 87(5), 545-555.
Taylor, N. F., Dodd, K. J., Prasad, D., & Denisenko, S. (2006). Progressive resistance exercise for people with multiple sclerosis. Disability and Rehabilitation, 28(18), 1119-1126.
Wang, C. Y., Olson, S. L., & Protas, E. J. (2009). Lower extremity muscle performance associated with community ambulation in elderly fallers. Asian Journal of Gerontology & Geriatrics, 4(1), 52-57.
White, L. J., & Dressendorfer, R. H. (2004). Exercise and multiple sclerosis. Sports Medicine, 34(15), 1077-1100.
White, L. J., McCoy, S. C., Castellano, V., Gutierrez, G., Stevens, J. E., Walter, G. A., & Vandenborne, K. (2004). Resistance training improves strength and functional capacity in persons with multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis Journal, 10(6), 668-674.
Wilmore, J. H., Costill, D. L., & Kenney, W. L. (1994). Physiology of sport and exercise. 4th Edition. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics.