عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Background and Aim: During the last decades, the importance of amino acid supplementation has been recommended to improve exercise performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of L-arginine supplementation on growth hormone, lactate and glucose responses to aerobic activity in boy students. Materials and Methods: Participants were included 10 athlete students with age: 18-16 years old. This research was a randomly semi-experimental double-blind study which established in a basic and two supplementation (0.1 gr per kg/body weight) and placebo (Starch) situations. The subjects participated in three phases of aerobic activity (running at intensity of 15th Borg scale equal to 80-70percent of maximum heart rate for 30 minutes. The first phase was done before receiving of supplementation and placebo and the second and third phases were done after receiving three days supplementation and placebo. Blood samples were collected during the first phase before and after aerobic test, but in the second and third phases after receiving three days supplementation and placebo immediately after aerobic running. For extraction of results the ANOVA with repeated measures and paired t-test were applied and the significant level set as p<0.05. Results: The result showed the significant increase in growth hormone after consuming supplementation with exercise (p=0.0001), but no significant change was observed for blood glucose (p=0.11) and blood lactate (p=0.09). Conclusion: Consumption (0.1 gr/kg) of Arginine supplementation indicated significant effect on growth hormone response to aerobic exercise.; but it was not true for both lactate and glucose serum. Therefore, it can be suggested the higher doses and longer periods for consumption of this supplement.
1. Abel, T., Knechtle, B., Perret, C., 2005. Influence of chronic supplementation of arginine aspartate in endurance athletes on performance and substrate metabolism–a randomized, double-blind, placebocontrolled study. International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol.26, no. 5, pp. 344-349.
2. Alba-Roth, J., Muller, O.A., Schopohl, J., Yon Werder, V.K., 1988. Arginine stimulates growth-hormone secretion by suppressing endogenous somatostatin secretion.The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 1186-1189.
3. Apostol, A.T., Tayek, J.A. 2003. A decrease in glucose production is associated with an increase in plasma citrulline response to oral arginine in normal volunteers. Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, vol.52, no. 11, pp. 1512–1516.
4. Berneis, K., Ninnis, R., Haussinger, D., Keller, U. 1999. Effects of hyper- and hypoosmolality on whole body protein and glucose kinetics in humans. The American Journal of Physiology, vol. 276, no. (1 Pt 1), pp. 188-195.
5. Bradley, S.J., Kingwell, B.A., McConell, G.K. 1999. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition reduces leg glucose uptake but not blood flow during dynamic exercise in humans. Diabetes, vol. 48, no. 9, pp. 1815– 1821.
6. Britni, N., Buford, J., Alexander, J, 2004. Glycine Arginine-α -Ketoisocaproic acid improves performance of repeated cycling sprint. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 583-587.
7. Burtscher, M., Brunner, F., Faulhaber, M., Hotter, B., et al. 2005. The prolonged intake of L-arginine L -aspartate reduces blood lactate accumulation and oxygen consumption during submaximal exercise. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, vol.4, no. 3, pp. 314-322.
8. Campbell, B., Paul, M., Robert, M., 2004. The ergogenic potential of arginine. Journal of International Sport Society Nutrition, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 35-38.
9. Castillo, L., Ajami, A., Branch, S., Chapman, T.E., et al. 1994. Plasma arginine kinetics in adult man: response to an arginine-free diet. Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 114-122.
10. Cladden, L.B. 2004. Lactate metabolism a new paradigm for the third millenjum. Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 1987-1993.
11. Collier, S.R., Casey, D., & Kanaley, J.A. 2005. Growth hormone responses to varying doses of oral arginine. Growth Hormone & IGF Research, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 136–139.
12. Collier, S.R., Collins, E., Kanaley, J.A. 2006. Oral arginine attenuates the growth hormone response to resistance exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 101, no. 3, pp. 848–852.
13. Colombani, P.C., Bitzi, R., FreyRindova, P., Frey, W., et al. 1999. Chronic arginine aspartate supplementation in runners reduces total plasma amino acid level at rest and during a marathon. European Journal of Nutrition, vol.38, no. 6, pp. 263-270.
14. Dehkhoda, M.R., Shabani Moghaddam, K., 2002. Supplements and doping in sport. Tehran: Bamdad Ketab Publication. pp. 9-19. [Persian]
15. Durkot, M.J., DeGaravilla, L., Caretti, D., Francesconi, R. 1995. The effect of dichloroacetate on lactate accumulation and endurance in an exercising rat model. International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 167-171.
16. Elsair, J., Poey, J., Rochiccioli, P., Denine, R., et al. 1980. Oral administration effects, with different doses, of arginine aspartate chlorhydrate upon growth hormone and fatty acids plasmatic rates in normal fasting children. Pathologie - Biologie (Paris), vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 639-644.
17. Favero, T.G., Zabel, A.C., Cloter, D., Abramson, J.J. 1997. Lactate inhibits Ca++-activated Ca++- channel activity from skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum. Journal of Applied Physiology, vol.82, no. 2, pp. 447-452.
18. Forbes, S.C., Harber, V., Bell, G.J. 2013. The acute effects of L-arginine on hormonal and metabolic responses during submaximal exercise in trained cyclists. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 369 - 377.
19. Gamberale, F. 1985. The perception of exertion. Ergonomics, vol. 28, pp. 299-308.
20. Garber, C.E., Blissmer, B., Deschenes, M.R., Franklin, B.A., et al. 2011. American College of Sport Medicine position stand. Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: Guidance for prescribing exercise. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise, vol. 43, no.7, pp. 1334- 1359.
21. Ghigo, E., Arvat, E., Valente, F., Nicolosi, M., et al. 1991. Arginine reinstates the somatotrope responsiveness to intermittent growth hormone-releasing hormone administration in normal adults. Neuroendocrinology, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 291– 294.
22. Godfrey, R.J, Madgwick, Z., whyte, G.P. 2003. The exercise – induced growth hormone response in athletes: Review. Sports Medicine, vol. 33, no. 8, pp. 599-613.
23. Gremion, G., Palud, P., Gobelet, C. 1989. Arginine aspartate and muscular activity. Part II. Schweizer Zeitschrift für Sportmedizin, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 241- 246.
24. Gropper, S.S., Smith, J.L., Groff, J.L. 2004. Advanced Nnutrition and Human Metabolism. 4th ed. Belmont, CA: Thomson Learing, pp. 87-89.
25. Gross, S.S., Wolin, M.S. 1995. Nitric oxide: pathophysiological mechanisms. Annual of Review Physiology, vol. 57, pp. 737-769.
26. Guyton, A., Hall, J.E. 2006. Medical physiology. Thranslated by: Shadan F. 11th ed. Tehran: Chehr Publication. (Third Edition), pp.1440-1441. [Persian]
27. Hargreaves, M., Mckenna, M.J., Jenkins, D.G., Warmington, S.A., et al. 1998. Muscle metabolism and performance during high-intensity, intermittent exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 84, no. 5, pp. 1678- 1691.
28. Hickner, R.C., Fisher, J.S., Ehsani, A.A., Kohrt, W.M. 1997. Role of nitric oxide in skeletal muscle blood flow at rest and during dynamic exercise in humans. The American Journal of Physiology, vol. 273, no. (1 Pt 2), pp. H405–410.
29. Kanaley, J.A. 2008. Growth hormone, arginine and exercise. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, vol. 11, no. 1,pp. 50–54.
30. Knechtle, B., Bosch A. 2008. The influence of arginine supplementation on performance and metabolism in athletes. International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 22-31.
31. Malakouti SK, Fatollahi P, Mirabzadeh A, Zandi T. 2007. Reliability, validity and factor structure of the GHQ-28 used among elderly Iranians. International Psychogeriatrics, vol. 19, no. 4, pp.623-634.
32. McConell, GK., Huynh, N.N., Lee-Young, R.S., Canny, B.J., et al. 2006a. L-Arginine infusion increases glucose clearance during prolonged exercise in humans. American Journal of Physiology Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 290, no. 1, pp. 60–66.
33. McConell, G.K., Kingwell, B.A. 2006b. Does nitric oxide regulate skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise? Exercise and Sport Sciences Review; vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 36–41.
34. Muazzezzaneh, A., Keshavarz, S.A., Djalali, M., Rahimi, A., et al. 2010. Effect of L-Arginine supplementation on blood lactate level and VO2max at anaerobic threshold performance. Journal of Kashan University of Medical Sciences, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 200-208. [Persian]
35. Sales, R.P., Mine, C.E.C., Franco, H.D., Rodrigues, E.L. et al. 2005. Effects of the acute arginine aspartate supplement on the muscular fatigue in trained volunteers. Review Bras Medicine Sport, vol.11, no. 6, pp. 347-351.
36. Schaefer, A., Piquard, F., Geny, B., Doutreleau, S., et al. 2002. L-Arginine reduces exercise-induced increase in plasma lactate and ammonia. International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 403– 407.
37. Tang, J.E., Lysecki, P.J., Manolakos, J.J., MacDonald, M.J., et al. 2011. Bolus arginine supplementation affects neither muscle blood flow nor muscle protein synthesis in youngmMen at rest or after resistance exercise. The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 141, no. 2, pp.195–200.
38. Tsai, P.H., Tang, T.K., Juang, C.L., Chi, C.A., et al. 2009. Effects of arginine supplementation on post-exercise metabolic responses. The Chinese Journal of Physiology, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 136- 142.
39. Wideman, L., Weltan, J.Y., Patrie, J.T., Bowers, C.Y., et al. 2000. Synergy of L-arginine and GHRP-2 stimulation of growth hormone in men and women: modulation by exercise. American Journal of Physiology, vol. 279, no. 4, pp. 1467-1477.
40. Zajac, A.., Poprzecki, S., Zebrowska, A.., Chalimoniuk, M., et al. 2010. Arginine and ornithine supplementation increases GH and IGF-1 serum levels after heavy-resistance exercise in strength-trained athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 1082-1090.