تأثیر 8 هفته تمرین تناوبی شدید و تداومی متوسط بر مولکول چسبان بین سلولی-1، پروتئین واکنشی C و شاخص‌های قلبی- متابولیکی مردان میان‌سال

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

دانشیار فیزیولوژی ورزشی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه شهید مدنی آذربایجان، تبریز، ایران.

چکیده

زمینه و هدف: مولکول چسبان بین‌سلولی-1 (ICAM-1) نسبت به شاخص‌های التهابی مانند پروتئین واکنشی C (CRP)، در پیش‌بینی بیماری قلبی- عروقی دقت بیشتری دارد، ولی تأثیر انواع تمرینات ورزشی بر این شاخص و وضعیت التهابی و متابولیکی بیماران سندرم‌متابولیک، به خوبی شناخته نشده است؛ از این رو تحقیق حاضر با هدف بررسی تأثیر 8 هفته تمرین تناوبی شدید و تداومی متوسط بر ICAM-1، CRP و شاخص‌های قلبی- متابولیکی مردان میان‌سال به اجرا درآمد. روش‌تحقیق: سی و چهار مرد دارای سندرم‌ متابولیک به طور تصادفی سه گروه تمرین تناوبی شدید (12=n)، تمرین تداومی متوسط (12=n) و گروه کنترل (10=n) تقسیم شدند و در حالت پایه و پس از انجام 8 هفته (سه جلسه دویدن در هفته) تمرین تداومی و تناوبی (به ترتیب با شدت 70-60 و 75-50 حداکثر ضربان قلب ذخیره)، خونگیری در حالت ناشتا به عمل آمد. گلوکز و چربی خون به روش آنزیمی (با کیت‌های شرکت پارس آزمون) و CRP و ICAM-1 سرم به روش الایزا (با کیت‌های شرکت کوزابیو) اندازه‌گیری شدند. از آزمون تحلیل واریانس یک سویه و آزمون t همبسته برای تحلیل داده ها در سطح اطمینان آماری 95 درصد استفاده شد. یافته‌ها: هر دو نوع تمرین تداومی و تداومی به‌ترتیب باعث کاهش معنی‌دار ICAM-1 (001/0=p، 04/0=p)، CRP (001/0=p، 02/0=p)، تری‌گلیسرید (001/0=p، 001/0=p)، قندخون‌ناشتا (001/0=p، 001/0=p)، فشار متوسط سرخرگی (008/0=p، 02/0=p)، دور کمر (001/0=p، 04/0=p)، وخامت‌ کلی سندرم‌ متابولیک (001/0=p، 001/0=p) و مقاومت انسولینی (007/0=p، 03/0=p) و افزایش HDL خون (001/0=p، 01/0=p)، شدند. فقط در مورد HDL (005/0=p)، دور‌کمر (001/0=p) و امتیاز z سندرم ‌متابولیک (001/0=p)، تمرین‌ تداومی اثرگذاری بیشتری داشت. نتیجه­گیری: با وجود یکسان بودن اثرگذاری هر دو نوع تمرین بر CRP و ICAM-1 سرمی، تمرین تداومی بر دور کمر، HDL و وخامت سندرم‌ متابولیک بیماران تاثیر بیشتری داشت که مناسب بودن بیشتر این نوع تمرینات برای کمک به این گروه را پیشنهاد می‌کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of 8 weeks of high intensity interval and moderate intensity continuous training on serum ICAM-1, CRP and cardiometabolic risk factors in middle-agedmen

نویسنده [English]

  • Karim Azali Alamdari
Associate Professor of Exercise Physiology, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Background and Aim: Intracellular adhesion molecules 1 (ICAM-1) is more precise than other inflammatory indices e.g. C reactive protein (CRP) in predicting the future cardiovascular diseases. However, the roles of different types of exercise training on serum ICAM-1 level and also body inflammatory and metabolic states are not fully elucidated in patient with metabolic syndrome (Mets). Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of 8 weeks of high intensity interval and moderate intensity continuous training on serum ICAM-1, CRP and cardiometabolic risk factors in middle-aged men. Materials and Methods: thirty-four male patient with Mets were randomly divided into three groups including high intensity interval training (n=12), moderate-intensity continuous training (n=12) and Control (n=10). The fasting blood sampling and some other variable measurements were measured at baseline and also after (at 9 am) eight weeks of continuous (at 60-70% of RHR) and interval l (at 70-75% of RHR) training protocols (3 running sessions/week). Blood glucose and lipids were measured using ParsAzmoon company enzymatic kits and serum ICAM-1 and CRP levels also detected with Cusabio company ELIZA kits. Data were analyzed using one way ANOVA and paired samples T tests at 95% Statistical significance level. Results: Both the continuous and interval training protocols decreased blood ICAM-1 (p=0.001, p=0.02), CRP (p=0.001, p=0.02), triglyceride (p=0.001, p=0.001), fasting blood sugar (p=0.001, p=0.001), waist circumference (p=0.001, p=0.04), overall Mets z score (p=0.001, p=0.001) and HOMA-IR (p=0.03, p=0.008) respectively, while HDL was significantly increased (p=0.001, p=0.01). However, with regard to HDL (p=0.005), waist circumference (p=0.001) and Mets Z score (p=0.001), moderate-intensity continuous training showed significantly more effectiveness than high intensity interval training. Conclusion: In spite of the equal effectiveness of both training protocols upon serum ICAM-1 and CRP, continuous training had more pronounced effects on waist circumference, blood HDL and overall severity of Mets which makes this protocol a better candidate to be prescribed for patients with Mets.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Interval training
  • Continuous training
  • Inflammation
  • Metabolic syndrome

Azali Alamdari, K., & Bashiri, J. (2018). Effects of hypobaric endurance training on graded exercise induced lymphocyte
mobilization, senescence and their surface thiol levels in elite male athletes. International Journal of Applied Exercise
Physiology, 7(1), 48-55.
Azali Alamdari, K., & Khalafi, M. (2019). The effects of high intensity interval training on serum levels of fgf21 and insulin
resistance in obese men. Iranian Journal of Diabetes and Metabolism, 18(1), 41-48. [Persian]
Azali Alamdari, K., & Rohani, H. (2018). The response of apelin and overall metabolic risk to aerobic training in middle-aged female patients with metabolic syndrome. Journal of Applied Exercise Physiology, 13(26), 139-152.
Babaei, P., Azali Alamdari, K., Soltani Tehrani, B., & Damirchi, A. (2013). Effect of six weeks of endurance exercise and
following detraining on serum brain derived neurotrophic factor and memory performance in middle aged males with
metabolic syndrome. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 53(4), 437-443.
Bag-Ozbek, A., & Giles, J. T. (2015). Inflammation, adiposity, and atherogenic dyslipidemia in rheumatoid arthritis: is
there a paradoxical relationship? Current Allergy and Asthma Reports, 15(2), 497-507. 
Balducci, S., Zanuso, S., Nicolucci, A., Fernando, F., Cavallo, S., Cardelli, P., … & Fallucca, F. (2010). Anti-inflammatory effect of exercise training in subjects with type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome is dependent on exercise modalities and independent of weight loss. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 20(8), 608-617.
Chakaroun, R., Raschpichler, M., Klöting, N., Oberbach, A., Flehmig, G., Kern, M., ... & Fasshauer, M. (2012). Effects of
weight loss and exercise on chemerin serum concentrations and adipose tissue expression in human obesity. Metabolism,
61(5), 706-714.
Church, T. S., Barlow, C. E., Earnest, C. P., Kampert, J. B., Priest, E. L., & Blair, S. N. (2002). Associations between cardiorespiratory fitness and C-reactive protein in men. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 22(11), 1869-1876.
Damirchi, A., Tehrani, B., Azali Alamdari, K., & Babaei, P. (2014). Influence of aerobic training and detraining on serum
BDNF, insulin resistance, and metabolic risk factors in middle-aged men diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. Clinical
Journal of Sport Medicine, 24(6), 513-518.
Daussin, F. N., Zoll, J., Dufour, S. P., Ponsot, E., Lonsdorfer-Wolf, E., Doutreleau, S., ... & Richard, R. (2008). Effect of
interval versus continuous training on cardiorespiratory and mitochondrial functions: relationship to aerobic performance
improvements in sedentary subjects. American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology,
295(1), 264-272.
DeSouza, C. A., Dengel, D. R., Macko, R. F., Cox, K., & Seals, D. R. (1997). Elevated Levels of Circulating Cell Adhesion
Molecules in Uncomplicated Essential Hypertension. American Journal of Hypertension, 10(12), 1335-1341.
Duvivier, B. M., Schaper, N. C., Bremers, M. A., van Crombrugge, G., Menheere, P. P., Kars, M., & Savelberg, H. H.
(2013). Minimal intensity physical activity (standing and walking) of longer duration improves insulin action and plasma lipids more than shorter periods of moderate to vigorous exercise (cycling) in sedentary subjects when energy expenditure
is comparable. PlOS ONE, 8(2), e55542.
Garanty-Bogacka, B., Rac, M. ,Syrenicz, M., Gibala, A., Walczak, M., & Syrenicz, A. (2012). Changes in serum
adipocytokines and inflammatory biomarkers following one-year of exercise training in obese adolescents. Journal of
Diabetes and Metabolism, 3(7), 212-217.
Giffen, P. S., Turton, J., Andrews, C. M., Barrett, P., Clarke, C. J., Fung, K. W., ... & York, M. J. (2003). Markers of experimental acute inflammation in the Wistar Han rat with particular reference to haptoglobin and C-reactive protein. Archives of Toxicology, 77(7), 392-402.
Guiraud, T., Nigam, A., Gremeaux, V., Meyer, P., Juneau, M., & Bosquet, L. (2012). High-intensity interval training in
cardiac rehabilitation. Sports Medicine, 42(7), 587-605.
Kargarfard, M., Lam, E. T., Shariat, A., Asle Mohammadi, M., Afrasiabi, S., Shaw, I., & Shaw, B. S. (2016). Effects o f
endurance and high intensity training on ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 levels and arterial pressure in obese and normal weight
adolescents. The Physician and Sports Medicine, 44(3), 208-216.
Kasapis, C., & Thompson, P. D. (2005). The effects of physical activity on serum C-reactive protein and inflammatory
markers: a systematic review. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 45(10), 1563-1569.
Keating, S. E., Machan, E. A., O'Connor, H. T., Gerofi, J. A., Sainsbury, A., Caterson, I. D., & Johnson, N. A. (2014).
Continuous exercise but not high intensity interval training improves fat distribution in overweight adults. Journal of
Obesity, 12.
Kissebah, A. H., & Krakower, G. R. (1994). Regional adiposity and morbidity. Physiological Reviews, 74(4), 761-811.
Klancic, T., Woodward, L., Hofmann, S. M., & Fisher, E. A. (2016). High density lipoprotein and metabolic disease:
Potential benefits of restoring its functional properties. Molecular Metabolism, 5(5), 321-327.
Kohrt, W. M., Obert, K. A., & Holloszy, J. O. (1992). Exercise training improves fat distribution patterns in 60-to
70-year-old men and women. Journals of Gerontology, 47(4), M99-M105.
Libby, P., Ridker, P. M., & Maseri, A. (2002). Inflammation and atherosclerosis. Circulation, 105(9), 1135-1143.
Martins, C., Kazakova, I., Ludviksen, M., Mehus, I., Wisloff, U., Kulseng, B., ... & King, N. (2016). High-intensity interval
training and isocaloric moderate-intensity continuous training result in similar improvements in body composition
and fitness in obese individuals. International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism, 26(3), 25-37.
Mohr, M., Krustrup, P., Nielsen, J. J., Nybo, L., Rasmussen, M. K., Juel, C., & Bangsbo, J. (2007). Effect of two different
intense training regimens on skeletal muscle ion transport proteins and fatigue development. American Journal of
Physiology-Regulatory. Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 292(4), R1594-R1602.
Nassis, G. P., Papantakou, K., Skenderi, K., Triandafillopoulou, M., Kavouras, S. A., Yannakoulia, M., … & Sidossis, L.
S. (2005). Aerobic exercise training improves insulin sensitivity without changes in body weight, body fat, adiponectin,
and inflammatory markers in overweight and obese girls. Metabolism, 54(11), 1472-1479.
Nathan, D. M. (1993). Long-term complications of diabetes mellitus. New England Journal of Medicine, 328(23), 1676-1685.
Ouchi, N., Kihara, S., Arita, Y., Maeda, K., Kuriyama, H., Okamoto, Y., ... & Yamashita, S. (1999). Novel modulator for
endothelial adhesion molecules adipocyte-derived plasma protein adiponectin. Circulation, 100(25), 2473-2476.
Palomo, I., Marín, P., Alarcón, M., Gubelin, G., Viñambre, X., Mora, E., & Icaza, G. (2003). Patients with essential hypertension present higher levels of sE-Selectin and sVCAM-1 Than normotensive volunteers. Clinical and Experimental
Hypertension, 25(8) 517-523.
Parissis, J. T., Venetsanou, K. F., Mentzikof, D. G., Kalantzi, M. V., Georgopoulou, M. V., Chrisopoulos, N., & Karas, S.
M. (2001). Plasma levels of soluble cellular adhesion molecules in patients with arterial hypertension. Correlations
with plasma endothelin-1. European Journal of Internal Medicine, 12(4), 350-356.
Park, H. S., Park, J. Y., & Yu, R. (2005). Relationship of obesity and visceral adiposity with serum concentrations of
CRP, TNF-a and IL-6. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 69(1), 29-35.
Pazoki, A. H., Choobineh, S., & Akbarnejad, A. (2016). The effect of six weeks combined training on plasma levels of
chemerin, serum amyloid a and c-reactive proteine and plasma lipid in obese male. Journal of Arak University of Medical
Sciences, 19(1), 1-11. [Persian]
Petridou, A., Chatzinikolaou, A., Fatouros, I., Mastorakos, G., Mitrakou, A., Chandrinou, H., … & Mougios, V. (2007).
Resistance exercise does not affect the serum concentrations of cell adhesion molecules. British Journal of Sports Medicine,
41(2), 76.
Quillard, T., & Croce, K. J. (2015). Pathobiology and mechanisms of atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular Imaging, (pp. 3-38).
Springer, Cham.

Soori, R., Ranjbar, K., Salehian, O., & Eslam, D. M. (2013). The effect of high interval intensity training on Plassma Soluble
Intercellular Adhesion Molecule -1 (sICAM-1) in sedentary obese male. Journal of Sport Biosciences, 5(3), 91-102.
Ribeiro, F., Alves, A. J., Duarte, J. A., & Oliveira, J. (2010). Is exercise training an effective therapy targeting endothelial
dysfunction and vascular wall inflammation? International Journal of Cardiology, 141(3), 214-221.
Rohani, H., Azali Alamdari, K., & Helali zadeh, M. (2016). Effect of aerobic training on overall metabolic risk and indices
levels in patients with metabolic syndrome: a meta-analysis study. Sport Physiology, 8(31), 17-46. [Persian]
Rutter, M. K., Meigs, J. B., Sullivan, L. M., D’Agostino, R. B., & Wilson, P. W. (2004). C-reactive protein, the metabolic
syndrome, and prediction of cardiovascular events in the framingham offspring study. Circulation, 110(4), 380-385.
Saxton, J., Zwierska, I., Hopkinson, K., Espigares, E., Choksy, S., Nawaz, S., ... & Pockley, A. G. (2008). Effect of
upper-and lower-limb exercise training on circulating soluble adhesion molecules, hs-CRP and stress proteins in patients
with intermittent claudication. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, 35(5), 6106-613.
Svingen, G. F., Schartum-Hansen, H., Ueland, P. M., Pedersen, E. R., Seifert, R., Ebbing, M., ... & Øyen, J. (2015). Elevate d
plasma dimethylglycine is a risk marker of mortality in patients with coronary heart disease. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 22(6), 743-752.
Szmitko, P. E., Wang, C. H., Weisel, R. D., de Almeida, J. R., Anderson, T. J., & Verma, S. (2003). New markers of
inflammation and endothelial cell activation part I. Circulation, 108(16), 1917-1923.
Williams, C. B., Zelt, J. G., Castellani, L. N., Little, J. P., Jung, M. E., Wright, D. C., … & Gurd, B. J. (2013). Changes in
mechanisms proposed to mediate fat loss following an acute bout of high-intensity interval and endurance exercise.
Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 38(12), 1236-1244.