اثر دو روش تمرینی بر برخی نشانگرهای سیستم ایمنی در ورزشکاران نوجوان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار فیزیولوژی ورزشی/ دانشکده تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی/ دانشگاه بوعلی سینا/ همدان

2 کارشناس ارشد فیزیولوژی ورزشی/ دانشکده علوم ورزشی/ دانشگاه بوعلی سینا/ همدان

3 دانشجوی دکترای تخصصی فیزیولوژی ورزشی/ پژوهشکده طب ورزشی/ پژوهشگاه تربیت‌بدنی و علوم ورزشی/ تهران

چکیده

زمینه و هدف: هدف تمرینات ورزشی ایجاد سازگاری‌هایی در سطوح سلولی و بهبود عملکرد ورزشی است. اگر چه افزایش شدت تمرینات فراتر از میزان توانایی‌های فیزیولوژیکی ورزشکاران باشد، منجر به ایجاد سندرم بیش‌تمرینی می‌گردد. به همین منظور، مطالعه حاضر مقایسه اثر دو شیوه تمرینی بر روی برخی از نشانگرهای سیستم ایمنی ورزشکاران نوجوان را بررسی می‌کند. روش تحقیق: این پژوهش، روی 45 نفر از ورزشکاران نوجوان که به‌صورت تصادفی در سه گروه قدرتی، سرعتی و کنترل تقسیم شده بودند، انجام گرفت. گروه‌های تمرینی به مدت هشت هفته، سه ­جلسه در هفته و هر جلسه 90 دقیقه، تحت یکی از تمرینات قدرتی و سرعتی قرار گرفتند. متغیر­های پژوهش (کورتیزول، تستوسترون و شمارش گلبول­ های سفید)، در ابتدا و 48 ساعت پس از آخرین جلسه‌ی تمرینی، اندازه‌گیری شد. برای بررسی تفاوت‌های درون‌گروهی داده­ ها، از آزمون تی همبسته و برای تفاوت‌های بین‌گروهی از آنالیز واریانس یک‌سویه با سطح معنی ­داری (0/05>p)، استفاده شد. یافته­ ها: نتایج درون‌گروهی نشان داد، تمرین قدرتی (0/02=p) و سرعتی (0/04=p)، باعث کاهش معنی‌دار  غلظت کورتیزول شد. اما افزایش غلظت تستوسترون تنها در گروه قدرتی معنی‌دار (0/05=p) بود. در بررسی واریانس گروه‌های تمرینی و کنترل تفاوت معنی‌دار مشاهده نشد. نتایج درون‌گروهی نسبت تستوسترون به کورتیزول در هر سه گروه، افزایش (0/05>p) داشت. اما نتایج بین‌گروهی تفاوت معناداری را در این نسبت در بین سه گروه، نشان نداد. تمرینات قدرتی و سرعتی، به‌طور معنی‌داری باعث افزایش لنفوسیت­ها (001/0p=)، افزایش مونوسیت‌ها در گروه سرعتی (0/001=p)، و افزایش ایزوفیل­ ها در گروه قدرتی (0/05=p) شد. همچنین کاهش نوتروفیل­ ها در دو گروه قدرتی (0/03=p) و سرعتی (0/01=p) مشاهده شد. در بررسی واریانس گروه­ های تمرینی و کنترل نیز تفاوت معنی‌دار در نوتروفیل­ ها و لنفوسیت­ها مشاهده شد (0/05=p). نتیجه­ گیری: تغییرات مشاهده شده در نشانگرهای سیستم ایمنی، نشان‌دهنده آن است که استفاده از هر دو نوع برنامه‌های تمرینی، می‌تواند در بهبود سازگاری‌های آنابولیکی و سیستم ایمنی سودمند باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of two exercises training on some of immune system markers in adolescent athletes

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammadali Samavati Sharif 1
  • Amir Afshari 2
  • Hojatolah Siavoshy 3
  • Maryam Keshvary 2
چکیده [English]

Background and Aim: The aim of exercise training is the cellular level amenities and development of athletic performance. Although, increase of workout intensity more than of physiological capabilities of athletes, will lead to overtraining syndrome. In this regard, this study investigated two training methods on some of immune system biomarkers in young athletes.  Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 45 adolescent athletes that were randomly divided into three groups of strength, speed, and control. The exercise groups were performed one of the strength or speed training for 8 weeks, three times a week, and 90 minutes per session. Research variables (cortisol, testosterone, and white blood cell count) were measured at baseline and 48 hours after the last training session. Data were analyzed by paired sample t-test for within group different and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for between group different (p<0.05). Results: The results showed that eight weeks of strength (p=0.02) and speed (p=0.004) training, significantly decreased cortisol and testosterone concentrations. But, testosterone concentration significantly increased only in strength training. Moreover, the identification of the variance in exercise and control groups showed no significant difference (p>0.05). The within group results showed that free testosterone/cortisol ratio significantly increased in all three groups (p<0.05). But, in between group no significant difference was showed in all three groups. Strength and speed training significantly increased lymphocytes in both groups (p=0.001), monocytes in speed group (p=0.001), and eosinophil in strength group (p=0.05). Also, neutrophils significantly reduced in strength (p=0.03) and speed (p=0.01) training. The variance analysis of exercise and control groups also showed that the neutrophils and lymphocytes were significantly difference (p=0.05). Conclusion: The changes in biomarkers of immune system showed that both of this exercise training (strength & speed) can be useful for immune system and anabolic adaptations.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Speed training
  • Strength Training
  • Testosterone
  • cortisol
  • White Blood Cell (WBC)

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