عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Background and Aim: The aim of exercise training is the cellular level amenities and development of athletic performance. Although, increase of workout intensity more than of physiological capabilities of athletes, will lead to overtraining syndrome. In this regard, this study investigated two training methods on some of immune system biomarkers in young athletes. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 45 adolescent athletes that were randomly divided into three groups of strength, speed, and control. The exercise groups were performed one of the strength or speed training for 8 weeks, three times a week, and 90 minutes per session. Research variables (cortisol, testosterone, and white blood cell count) were measured at baseline and 48 hours after the last training session. Data were analyzed by paired sample t-test for within group different and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) for between group different (p<0.05). Results: The results showed that eight weeks of strength (p=0.02) and speed (p=0.004) training, significantly decreased cortisol and testosterone concentrations. But, testosterone concentration significantly increased only in strength training. Moreover, the identification of the variance in exercise and control groups showed no significant difference (p>0.05). The within group results showed that free testosterone/cortisol ratio significantly increased in all three groups (p<0.05). But, in between group no significant difference was showed in all three groups. Strength and speed training significantly increased lymphocytes in both groups (p=0.001), monocytes in speed group (p=0.001), and eosinophil in strength group (p=0.05). Also, neutrophils significantly reduced in strength (p=0.03) and speed (p=0.01) training. The variance analysis of exercise and control groups also showed that the neutrophils and lymphocytes were significantly difference (p=0.05). Conclusion: The changes in biomarkers of immune system showed that both of this exercise training (strength & speed) can be useful for immune system and anabolic adaptations.
Ahtiainen, J. P., Pakarinen, A., Alen, M., Kraemer, W. J., & Hakkinen, K. (2003). Muscle Hypertrophy Hormonal Adaptations and Strength Development during Strength Training in Strength-Trained and Untrained Men. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 89, 555-63.
Akimoto, T., Akama, T., & Sugiura, K. (1998). Alteration of Local Immunity in the Oral Cavity after Endurance Running. Japanese Journal of Physicsl Fitness Sport Medicine, 47, 53-62.
Ansley, P. J., Blannin, A., & Gleeson, M. (2007). Elevated Plasma Interleukin-6 Levels in Trained Male Triathletes Following an Acute Period of Intense Interval Training. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 99(4), 353-60.
Arazi, H., Salehi, A., Hosseini, Y., & Jahanmahin, M. (2012). The response of hematological factors to a circuit resistance training program with various intensities in athlete male students. The Scientific Journal of Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization, 9(1), 54-62. [Persian]
Astrand, P. O., Rodahl, K., Dahl, H. A., & StrØmme, S. B. (2003). Textbook of Work Physiology. Champaign IL, Human Kinetics, 103-112.
Baum, M., Liesen, H., & Enneper, J. (1994). Lecocytes, Lymphocytes, Activation Parameters and Cell Adhesion Molecules in Middle Distance. Runner under Different Training Conditions. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 3, 122-6.
Bhatti, R., & Shaikh, D. (2007). The Effect of Exercise on Blood Parameters, Pakistani Journal of Physiology, 3(2), 22-35.
Bompa. T., & Calcina. O. (1995). From Childhood to Champion Athlete. Veritas Pub, 110-119.
Bosco, C., Colli, R., Bonomi, R., von Duvillard, S. P., & Viru, A. (2000). Monitoring Strength Training: Neuromuscular and Hormonal Profile. Medicine Science Sports Exercise, 32(1), 202-8.
Brzycki, M. (1993). Strength-Predicting a One-Rep Max from Reps-to-Fatigue. Journal of Physical Education. Recreation and Dance, 64(1), 88-90.
Deilam, M. J., Gheraat, M. A., Azarbayjani, M. A., & Aslani Katooli, H. A. (2012). Effect of Intensive Training on Salivary Level of Cortisol, Testosterone, alpha-amylase and Mood of Elite Adolescent Wrestlers. Journal of Gorgan University of Medical Sciences, 14(2), 37-41.
Fornieles, G., Rosety, M. A., Elosegui, S., Rosety, J. M., Alvero-Cruz, J. R., Garcia, N., Rosety, M., Rodriguez-Pareja, T., Toro, R., Rosety-Rodriguez, M., Ordonez, F. J., & Rosety, I. (2014). Salivary Testosterone and Immunoglobulin A were Increased by Resistance Training in Adults with Down Syndrome. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 47(4), 345-348.
Gellish, R. L., Goslin, B. R., Olson, R. E., McDonald, A., Russi, G. D., & Moudgil, VK. (2007). Longitudinal Modeling of the Relationship between Ageand Maximal Heart Rate. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 39(5), 822-9.
Hakkinen, K., Pakarinen, A., Alén, M., Kauhanen, H., & Komi, PV. (1988). Daily Hormonal and Neuromuscular Responses to Intensive Strength Training in 1 Week. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 9(6), 422-8.
Hakkinen, K., Pakarinen, A., Kraemer, W. J., Newton, R. U., & Alen, M. (2000). Basal Concentrations and Acute Responses of Serum Hormones and Strength Development during Heavy Resistance Training in Middle-Aged and Elderly Men and Women. Journal of Gerontology- Biology Sciences Medical Sciences, 55, 95-105.
Kraemer, W.J., Hakkinen, K., Newton, R. U., Nindl, B. C., Volek, J. S., McCormick, M., Gotshalk, L. A., Gordon, S. E., Fleck, S. J., Campbell, W. W., Putukian, M., & Evans, W. J. (1999). Effects of Heavy Resistance Training on Hormonal Response Patterns in Younger vs. Older Men. Journal of Applied Physiology, 87, 982-92.
Kraemer, W. J., & Ratamess, N. (2005). Hormonal Responses and Adaptations to Resistance Exercise and Training. Sports Medicine, 35(4), 339-61.
Kraemer, W. J., & Ratamess, N. A. (2003). Endocrine responses and adaptations to strength and power training. In Komi pv, editor. Strength and Power in Sport. 2nd ed. Malden (MA):Blackwell scientific publications, 361-8.
Kraemer, W. J., Ratamess, N. A., Fry, A. C., & French, D. N. (2006). Strength testing development and evaluation of methodology in physiological assessment of human fitness. Champaign IL. Human Kinetics, 119-50.
Lopez. Calbet, J. A., Navarro, M. A., Barbany, J. R., Garcia Manso, J., Bonnin, M. R., & Valero, J. (1993). Salivary Steroid Changes and Physical Performance in Highly Trained Cyclists. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 14(3), 111-7.
Lusa Cadore, E., Lhullier, F. L., Arias Brentano, M., Marczwski DaSilva, E., Bueno Ambrosini, M., Spinelli, R., Ferrari Silva, R., & Martins Kruel, L. F . (2009). Salivary Hormonal Responses to Resistance Exercise in Trained and Untrained Middle- Aged Men. Journal of Sports Medicine Physical Fitness, 49, 301-307.
Mogharnasi, M., Eslami, R., & Behnam, B. ( 201 4). Effects of Endurance and Circuit Resistance Trainings on Lipid Profile, Heart Rate, and Hematological Parameters in Obese Male Students. Annals of Applied Sport Science, 2(4), 11-22.
Nemet, D., Mills, P. J., & Cooper, D. M. (2004). Effect of Intense Wrestling Exercise on Leucocytes and Adhesion Molecules in Adolescent Boys. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 38, 154-158.
Nieman, D. C., Henson, M. D., Austin, M. D., & Brown, V. A. (2005). Immune response to a 30-Minute walk. Medical Science Sports Exercise, 37(1), 57-62.
Ratamess, N. A., Kraemer, W. J., Volek, J. S., Maresh, C. M., Vanheest, J. L., Sharman, M. J., et al. (2005). Effect of Heavy Exercise Volume on Post-Exercise Androgen Receptor Content in Resistance Trained Men. Journal of Steroid Biochemical Molecular Biology, 93, 35-43.
Roschel, H., Barroso, R., Batista, M., Ugrinowitsch, C., Tricoli, V., Arsati, F., Lima-Arsati, Y. B., Araujo, V. C., &
Moreira, A. (2011). Do Whole-Body Vibration Exercise and Resistance Exercise Modify Concentrations of Salivary Cortisol and Immunoglobulin A? Brazilian Journal of Medicine Biology Research, 44, 592-597.
Samavati Sharif, M. A., & Siavoshy, H. (2014). The Effects of a Combined Aerobic and Resistance Exercise Training on GFR and Serum Factors of Renal Function in Men with Type 2 Diabetes. Sport Physiology, 22, 109-124. [Persian]
Seiavoshy, H., Samavatisharif, M. A., Keshvari, M., & Ahmadvand, A. (2014). The Effect of Resistance Training Programs on GFR and Some Biochemical Factors of Renal Function in Elderly Males with Type 2 Diabetes. Sadra Medical Sciences Journal, 3(1), 31-42. [Persian]
Siavoshy, H. (2015). Effects of Exercise Training on Motor and Cognitive Abilities of three Children with Down syndrome. Exceptional Education, 1(129), 57-66. [Persian]
Siavoshy, H. (2016). Effects of Resistance Training on Salivary Hormone Profile and Immunoglobulin A in Adults with Down Syndrome. Exceptional Education, 9(137), 60-64. [Persian]
Siyavoshi, H. (2013). Progressive Tolerance Exercises for Young Adults Suffering from Down syndrome: A Clinical Experiment. Exceptional Education, 5(118), 68-71. [Persian]
Smilios, I., Pilliandis, T., Karamouzis, M., Tokmakidis, S. P. (2003). Hormonal Responses after Various Resistance Exercise Protocols. Medicine Science Sports Exercise, 35, 644-54.
Vuorimaa, T., Vasankari, T., Mattila, K., Heinonen, O., Hakkinen, K., & Rusko, H. (1999). Serum Hormone and
Myocellular Protein Recovery after Intermittent Runs at the Velocity Associated with VO2max. European
Journal of Applied Physiology Occupational Physiology, 80, 575-81.
Whyte, G. (2006). The physiology of training, advances in sport and exercise science series. United Kingdom, 206.
Yazdanparast, B., Azarbayjani, A., Rasaee, M. J., Jourkesh, M., & Ostojic Sergej, M. (2009). The Effect of Different Intensity of Exercise on Salivary Steroids Concentration in Elite Female Swimmers. Physical Education and Sport, 7(1), 69-77.